Saturday, August 31, 2019

Things Fall Apart: Okonkwo’s Perspective

Autoimmune had been with our family for three years, so I really didn't count on things changing. When Queued told that the oracle ordered him dead I was shocked. I didn't know what to do. I thought maybe Beriberi would know what to do, but I was even more confused after leaving his compound. How could I let someone Just kill this boy who called me father, but I wasn't willing to let anyone call me a coward. So I did what had to be done, I told Autoimmune that he was going home.I knew that Autoimmune had mixed emotions about this situation, I too had mixed emotions but it was time for him to go now. I knew Known had looked up to Autoimmune, but I didn't think he would take It this hard. Although I saw nothing, I could sense that Known was very hurt by this decision, and the way he looked at my face told me that he knew what was to happen to this boy, whom he called a brother. The day that we got rid of Autoimmune was a day that I will never forget. The men all came to my compound. We were all dressed up In our finest cloths.The men brought palm-wine, which Autoimmune was to carry. We started that the journey with everyone talking to with one another. We walked and it seemed like with every step I got even more nervous. It was too late to chicken out. Everyone would think that I was a coward if Autoimmune was not killed. I was sweating just thinking about it. How was I supposed to do such a horrified act? Autoimmune was like a son to me and for me to Just all of a sudden break that bond was the hardest thing I ever had to do. But it was the only choice I had.I was not about o be ridiculed and called a coward or womanly. My father was a failure and I refuse to be one, just as he was, so I had to kill Autoimmune. When it came to the time to kill Autoimmune one of the men coughed. As soon as he did this Autoimmune was forced to look straight ahead. Autoimmune knew something was not right. The demeanor of the men had changed. Within minutes the man who coughed had s truck Autoimmune and he had fallen down. At this point I didn't know what to do but to continue. As Autoimmune called out for me, I burst through the men and killed Autoimmune.As I struck him he fell and blood ran from his body as if it were running from a water fall. I could only continue as I heard him call out â€Å"father†. Nevertheless, I was a man for doing what the oracle told me to do and for doing something for my people. I didn't realize what I had did until it was over. It was as if I as In a haze when the killing occurred. I Immediately felt guilt and remorse came over me. I couldn't believe what I had done. I had killed a child. I had killed a child who once called me father.I was sad, but I could not let this control. I had to hide my emotions and act as a man, strong, fearless and emotionless. I had to move on. Things Fall Apart: Ginkgo's Perspective By megabyte really didn't count on things changing. When Queued told that the oracle ordered him dead I was shoc ked. I didn't know what to do. I thought maybe Beriberi would know Autoimmune, but I didn't think he would take it this hard. Although I saw nothing, I loud sense that Known was very hurt by this decision, and the way he looked at my came to my compound.We were all dressed up in our finest cloths. The men brought We started that the Journey with everyone talking to with one another. We walked sweating Just thinking about it. How was I supposed to do such a horrified act? Refuse to be one, Just as he was, so I had to kill Autoimmune. Coughed had struck Autoimmune and he had fallen down. At this point I didn't know was in a haze when the killing occurred. I immediately felt guilt and remorse came I couldn't believe what I had done. I had killed a child. I had killed a child who once

Friday, August 30, 2019

America Movil †The Jaguar’s Next Move

After a deep analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of America Movil, and considering the forces that are currently driving the growth of the wireless telecom market in Latin America and the rest of the world, we have elaborated certain recommendations concerning the company’s future strategic decisions which, in our opinion, should be considered in order to consolidate the corporation’s current position as a global leader in this industry.Regarding the issue of the possible expansion of America Movil into new markets; the analysis shows that the best strategy for the company to follow, considering its current investments, assets and the forecasts for each region, is to focus on the organic growth and to continue strengthening its position in the Latin American market, where the corporation has been able to develop strong brand awareness among the consumers and where the cultural, social and economic aspects of the region represent an advantage against competitors.Reg arding the possibility of a future merge between America Movil and Telmex International, there is no doubt that the synergy that both companies could generate is enormous, nevertheless, due to the basic yet significant differences in these telecom segments, the best option is to keep both companies as separate entities while allowing them to work together by the establishment of joint ventures and strategic alliances in specific projects. Sincerely Yours, Author Organic Growth against Positioning in New MarketsAfter quite a long â€Å"shopping spree† that lasted over seven years, from 2000 to 2007, in which America Movil invested and acquired assets all over Latin America, becoming the largest and most powerful corporation in the region; today the company needs to decide whether to continue its expansion through acquisitions – either in the same region or in different potential markets such as Europe or Asia – or to settle down and focus on getting the most out of its current investments.To determine which of these options brings the most benefits for America Movil, we will analyze several aspects of the company and the environment in which it competes, as well forecasts, opportunities and threats that come with each one of these options. Analysis of America Movil and its current position in the Latin American MarketAmerica Movil currently holds a privileged competitive position in the Latin American Market, with strong presence in 16 different countries that at the same time, share a wide variety of cultural, economical and social aspects. These common characteristics represent an advantage for America Movil against foreign competitors due to the experience and proven success of the company in positioning itself and understanding the dynamics in this region.Some of the countries in which the corporation competes, are currently in an advanced stage of development regarding the wireless market – such as Argentina, Chile, El Salvador and Uruguay, where the wireless percentage of penetration is above 85% of the population – while others represent an attractive opportunity of growth – such as Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru and Puerto Rico – where the percentage of penetration ranges from 41% to 75% of the population.The impact of these percentages can be better appreciated in exhibit 1, where it shows that the total number of potential clients in the region can be assumed to be above 150 million, a number which exceeds the total number of customers currently affiliated with America Movil – 141 million-, especially in countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, where the company already has a relatively high percentage of the market share.The total number of potential customers just in these four countries is almost 130 million, 85% of the total number of potential customers. As important as the size of the market available for this corporation, is the distribution of revenue that each one of these countries represents. This distribution can be better appreciated in exhibit 2. What the trend is showing is that the percentage of revenue from Mexico, the most important market for America Movil, is decreasing compared to other countries in which the company operates.From 2004 to 2008 the participation of Mexico has reduced from 54% to 39%, meaning that over half of the revenue of the corporation today comes from its operations in foreign markets, emphasizing their increasing importance relative to the domestic market, which importance has decreased in over 15% while the Brazilian, Caribbean, Andean and Mercosur markets have rose between 4% and 7% each. However, as we can appreciate in exhibit 3, the overall behavior of the Latin American Market shows that it has been in an important phase of growth in the past 4 years, from 2004 to 2008, where revenues have increased over 151%.These numbers together support t he arguments of both, the strong position that America Movil currently has in the Latin American market, and of the success of the company in understanding the dynamics of the Latin American economy and culture; which translate in a competitive advantage over its main competitor in the region, Telefonica, and other European and North American based corporations that have struggled in positioning themselves in the countries where America Movil has established.Current Strategy in Latin America The success factors of America Movil strategy in this region can be summarized in two main categories; the penetration strategy and the positioning strategy. Penetration Strategy The penetration strategy developed by the company has been clear since the beginning; the acquisition of assets in the different Latin American countries for a low price.This strategy has benefited the corporation by providing them with the required infrastructure to operate at a relatively low cost, taking advantage of opportunities generated by the failure of other companies to develop a strong position in the market and taking advantage of the liberalization of the Latin American economies. Examples of these acquisitions are the purchase of BCP from BellSouth Corp. (USA) and Verbier (Brazil) in 2003 for $643 million and American Movil Peru from TIM International (Italy) for $503.4 million. The main reasons for the retreat of these companies from the region were either difficulties at their domestic markets or failed business strategies, two factors that America Movil had under control, with a strong domestic market performance in Mexico and with a profitable business strategy in the region. Positioning Strategy The second factor that drove the success of the corporation in the countries where it penetrated was the positioning strategy.The strategy to obtain a strong position in the markets where it competes was developed considering the economic situation of the majority of the Latin American p opulation, which is relatively weaker and more unstable and than the one in markets such as North America or Europe. With this in mind, America Movil developed a system of pre-paid cards, which to this date, has been the driving force of the company’s growth in the region.The advantage of this model lies in the fact that the corporation discovered that Latin Americans were more likely to become users of wireless communication services if they had the opportunity to pay for the service as they required it; avoiding long term contracts and potentially escalating debts, which, because of the unstable economical situation, could become impossible to pay.The customers were not the only ones beneficiated, since with this model, America Movil became able to considerably reduce collection costs and to avoid invoice defaults that on the long run, could have affected the revenues of the company as well as the number of their clients. There are, however, two main weaknesses in this mode l, the first one lying in the fact that this strategy can be relatively easily copied by its competitors and in the long run, it doesn’t represent a significant competitive advantage over them.The second disadvantage is that the revenues generated by this strategy are lower than the ones obtained by a post-paid model, which mean that its profitability is based on the volume. Nevertheless, this is currently not a problem for the company since over 83% of its customers are using the pre-paid option. Forecasts of the Wireless Market in Latin America As appreciated in exhibit 1, there are currently a huge number of unattended potential customers in the Latin American Market.This can be assumed by noticing that the overall penetration is 66%, with countries such as Argentina with an astonishing 97% penetration percentage while others important markets such as Brazil and Mexico are about 65%, a number that can be largely increased considering the pre-paid strategy used by America M ovil, which simplifies and encourages the use of its service among the population.As seen in exhibit 4, according to the case, the forecast for the year 2012 expects an increase from 66% to 76% in the number of subscribers in the wireless market; this represents an increase of almost 50 million new customers, which, as analyzed earlier, are mostly expected to come from four countries: Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which combined, have a population of unsubscribed potential customers of almost 130 million, while all of the other countries barely reach 22 million.This information can help the company focus their efforts in the markets mentioned before, while maintaining a relatively stable growth in the others, focusing mostly not in attracting new customers but in increasing the profitability of each one of them. Analysis and Forecasts of the Wireless Market in the rest of the world After analyzing the benefits of focusing on the organic growth of the company, it is also importa nt to consider the option of expanding further into new non-natural markets for America Movil.The options available are the Asian, European and the Middle East/Africa and North American Market, where the company currently has a small operation. The main advantage of the Asian market is definitely its size; as the continent with the larger population, over 3,879,000,000 according to the World Atlas’ estimates of 2006, and over 10 times the population in South America; it’s definitely the most attractive market to consider. Nevertheless, there are two main barriers that might decrease the attractiveness of trying to penetrate in this market; the competitors and the enormous cultural differences between Asia and Latin America.The competition in Asia represent a huge threat for newcomers, since is the domestic market of China Mobile, the largest wireless corporation in the world with over $275 billion in revenue and the financial power to overwhelm any new entrant. In addi tion to this, the fact that, as in Latin America, America Movil is familiarized with the economic, social and cultural aspects of the population, China Mobile has a huge advantage and experience with the Asian culture.Europe is also another important market to consider, and the one that America Movil has been closer to penetrate in; however, the same problems arise, with the presence of Vodafone, a British corporation with over $152 Billion in revenue and the advantage of competing in a market in which the company is more familiar with. This in addition to the fact that, as stated in the case, Europe doesn’t seem to be ready to open to competitors from the new world, which mean that America Movil is going to have more trouble penetrating with its acquisitions strategy.Finally, North America doesn’t seem to be an attractive market due to its saturation and low expected growth of only 1. 2% and in the Middle East and Africa America Movil may end up making the same mistak es made by European and North American Corporations in Latin America, which is a weak positioning strategy. These are the reasons why the most feasible strategy is to focus on the organic growth, since the strengths that the company has in Latin America, specially the knowledge of the market, can become weaknesses when trying to expand to new markets where strong competitors already have the advantage of experience and economic power.Merger between America Movil and Telmex International The rapid technological changes in the telecommunications industry and the emergence of new players, combined with the reduction of traditional entry barriers and the rise of alternative service providers are forces that currently represent a huge threat for both America Movil and Telmex International. This is the reason why, taking advantage of being part of Carlos Slim’s Holdings, both companies should be able to establish synergy in the markets where they compete in order to offer a combina tion of services that would be more difficult, if not impossible, to provide by separate.Nevertheless, due to the significant differences in issues such as the infrastructure and strategies required to operate, a merger could not be the best option, however this doesn’t mean that both America Movil and Telmex International are not able to develop joint ventures or strategic alliances while working in specific project that might, in the long-term, increase their profitability, competitiveness and presence in the Latin American Markets.New trends in telecommunications such as the triple play which offers voice, date and video are rapidly acquiring popularity and obtaining an important share of the market, if Telmex International and America Movil can combine these with the wireless service, there is no doubt that they will obtain an important advantage in any of the countries where they establish.Cited Works Rullan, Samantha. America Movil, The Making of a Mexican Global Latina . 2008. INSEAD The Business School for the World America Movil. â€Å"2008 Annual Report. † 2008. 29th April 2010 . World Atlas. Continents of the World. 2006. 29th April 2010 .

Thursday, August 29, 2019

A Doll s House By Henrik Ibsen Essay -- Henrik Ibsen, A Dolls House

Nora Helmer keeps a big secret from her husband, Torvald and she fears what will happen if he ever finds out. She secretly borrows a large amount of money from Nils Krogstad, a fellow employee of her husband at the bank. This money is borrowed to help her husband recover from a serious illness. Nora never tells Torvald of the loan and pays it back in small installments with her household allowance. Torvald is appointed bank director and the first thing he wants to do is fire a man who once forged a signature on a document. This man is Nils Krogstad. It is later revealed that Nora also committed the same crime Krogstad has committed. Nora forged her father’s signature in order to get the money. Krogstad threatens to reveal Nora’s secret if her husband fires him from his job. Nora truly tries to convince her husband to not have Krogstad fired, but ault that Nora leaves him, but in reality it is neither of them, it is society. Truly, Torvald is weak and tries to take on a role that society is telling him to grasp on. He has to be dominant towards his wife and he has to be the â€Å"controller†. It took time for Nora to transform into a new person, but after she did, she became a person who could not stand to be a â€Å"doll† any longer. A doll must do whatever the controller wants them to do. Dolls are silent, do not express opinion and do not accomplish much without the controller. Nora was this doll and realized she no longer wanted to take part in this role. Torvald and Nora become victims of social pressures that define the perfect man and the perfect women not because of everything that went wrong in their relationship, but because Nora realizes she no longer wants to play â€Å"doll† with her husband, the â€Å"controller†.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Frank Luntz Lections on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values Essay

Frank Luntz Lections on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values - Essay Example Similarly, there are certain aspects in the manner he makes his presentation which needs to be corrected so as to make it even better. Luntz is very keen on involving his audience in his presentation. He does not simply stand on the podium and give a speech. Rather, he occasionally asks questions which are very important in keeping the audience much engaged and alert. He interludes his talk with a number of very interesting questions which effectively connect with the audience. This is certainly an important part of making a successful speech and ensuring that the audience is motivated to listen further. In the same way, Luntz does not just stand in one place at the podium during his talk. He greatly moves around the podium and as he walks across and talks. This makes people very engaged and not bored. The focus in this regard is to ensure that the audience is not fixated and subsequently bored. In this regard, Luntz is very effective in the context of audience adaptation. In making his points, Luntz uses plenty of relevant examples which the audience can easily associate with. He does make his presentation full of theory and abstract reasoning. Rather, he talks about the daily things which his audience relates with. In a way, Luntz has a great sense of humour which helps in keeping the audience alert and greatly involved. This humour is not actually far-fetched but is drawn from the very situations which the audience experience daily. Luntz makes a comparison between the performance of Obama and McCain in the 2008 election campaigns. He attributes Obama’s success to the ability to easily connect and relate to the audience while making his speeches. On the other hand, McCain is presented as somebody who highly depends on the teleprompter and does not thereby clearly connect with his audience. Luntz maintains a proper eye contact with the audience and also greatly applies gestures in driving his points.     

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Mexican revolution of the 1910s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Mexican revolution of the 1910s - Essay Example Though much of The Mexican revolution of the 1910’s speaks about bringing down the President Porfirio Diaz from his power; the main idea behind it was to bring justice to the people who were longing for it and ensure proper distribution of wealth through a fight against the foreign imperialists. Though the youth tried to get into politics and begin a fresh phase of rule that would change lives of people to a better standard, they were not given this opportunity. The imperialism that prevailed in the people with power left people in silence though, they had an opinion to express and a wish to elect their leader. But the youth of Mexico however made it to the throne. They acquired the power after a long struggle from the hands of the imperialists and brought their people what they wanted, freedom. The people living in the borders of the Mexico and the United states have seen the worst phase of this revolution. The Mexican people resisted the control the U.S over these places and fought against them. This revolution saw blood of both the Nations. People even migrated from Mexico borders to keep away from this violence. This image shows a family trying to migrate from Mexico border that had seen violence in many forms. Initially it was the rule of the President Porfirio Diaz which weakened their minds and to add to their misery the imperialism by the U.S people left them to going away to safer places. Many of them migrated to California and some people to Los Angeles hoping the war would end in a few months but it didn’t and actually lasted a for years. "We were running away from the rebellion. . . . We came to the United States to wait out the conclusion of the Revolution. We thought it would be over in a few months."(Mexicans and Mexican-Americans). However the boundaries between the two nations (Mexico and The U.S) had been a controversy since ages and this has been the issue for the Mexican revolution of the 1910’s as well. Even today the b oundary separation has its conflicts going on. Though attempts were made to pacify people on the boundaries of the Nations, they proved futile with the discrepancies the people had among the ownership of the lands. The period 1910-1920 has seen the worst phase with wars in many places. The Mexicans attacked the Anglos and their stores and railroads. The picture above shows the Mexican troops marching in Juarez, Mexico during the Mexican revolution in the 1910’s. This Mexican revolution of the 1910’s however would leave an impression on anybody who carefully studies and understands the history and the story behind the imperialistic foreigner’s strategy. I, feel that though there have been complaints about the then President of Mexico, Porfirio Diaz, and his selfish rule that had concentrated wealth and power in the hands of a few, which rendered people of Mexico helpless and other issues pertaining to the rule of their government and confiscating lands from peasa nts, there had always been a bigger issue, the imperialistic foreigners who took away the power of people and controlled their lands. This issue certainly appealed to everybody who knew the history of the Mexican Revolution because the other problems the Mexicans had with their government and the peasants could be solved among them at some point in time and they were categorically domestic issues which needed just the attention of some people of the Nation. But the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Animal Senses Biology magnetoreception mechanism on Migratory Birds Essay

Animal Senses Biology magnetoreception mechanism on Migratory Birds - Essay Example Birds have various times of migration. Some birds migrate during the day like swallows and crows, while some migrate at night such as warblers, cuckoos, wild fowls and woodpeckers, as well as most songbirds (Engels 1). Stimuli such as internal body clocks or subtle weather changes cause these birds to migrate, and this ability can be explained by a phenomenon called magnetoreception, which is the ability of some organisms to detect the Earth’s magnetic field in perceiving direction, altitude or location (Solov'yov 40). The Earth’s magnetic field can be detected through various mechanisms such as chemical, electrical and mechanical means, and any of these stimuli can be converted into a molecular signal like a light-stimulated or photochemical reaction in the retina, which can then be recognized and perceived by magnetoceptive organisms like birds and insects (41). Hypotheses in the mechanisms of magnetoreception in birds There are various mechanisms hypothesized for mag netoreception to occur in birds, and one of these is the phenomenon involving a chemical compass where chemical reactions occur involving the transitions of electrons between high and low energy configurations or spin states, influenced by the Earth’s magnetic field (Rodgers 353). ... The amount of products from this reaction and the length of the half-life time of the radical base pair would depend on the strength of the detected magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field determines the amount of radical base products and their length of half-life, and their linear relationship can be used to determine the strength of the magnetic field (Ritz 135; Rodgers 353). Thus, the stronger the magnetic field, the radical base pair mechanism would be producing more molecules with unpaired electrons, which in turn keeps the bird in its intended direction. These reactions occur in the photoreceptor region of the bird’s eye, helping the birds detect the strength of Earth’s magnetic field through radical base pair mechanism. The radical spinning is explained by hyperfine interactions, and these happen when there is a coupling between the magnetic moments of the unpaired electron and its atomic nucleus (Ritz 135). The interchanging conversions between the s inglet state and the triplet state is a process whose frequency is determined by the strength of the hyperfine reactions. This system is not only influenced by the intensity but also by the direction of the field, which makes it act like a compass (136). The tendency of one component of hyperfine reaction to be strong towards one direction only determines the interchanging conversion rate of the S and T state. Thus the effects of the magnetic field would be depending on the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the alignment of the radical pairs. These are the mechanisms by which birds are able to travel at night. Photoreceptor mechanisms in birds Birds have two types of light receptors in their eye: night vision

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Transfer and Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Transfer and Studies - Essay Example I would be grateful to you if you would take my case on humanitarian grounds and take the necessary steps to sanction the transfer to a school at California as soon as possible. The situation that calls for a transfer is as follows. I could pursue my studies at the school in Seattle only till the third semester because I was expecting my child during that period. I finished the third semester while I was expecting the child. My family and the father of my child work and live in California. This made it difficult for me to attend the school, as I had to fly back and forth from southern California and Seattle on weekend all through my third semester. I had to take a year off from school afterward, as I gave birth to my child. As I continue to stay with my family at California, it puts me in a position to resume the pattern of flying back and forth between southern California and Seattle. This may not be an ideal situation for me and my infant. As a first generation American, I need to follow the family values in our culture that demands a situation where the child grows up among both the paternal and maternal relatives. The father of my child works at Southern California, and if I continue my studies at Seattle, it would mean that the family is separated. Moreover, the financial burden will be much heavier for us to handle, since I will have to use the flight more frequently. I am the first in my family to attend law school, and I realize the significance of my studies and am very keen on completing the course. Therefore, I would like to get a transfer to a school in California, where I can pursue my studies diligently, as it would not create any difficulty for me as a mother and a student. I hope you will try to understand my situation and necessitate a transfer as per my request. My grades were affected during the third semester when I had to travel a lot for attending the classes.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I put before you the humble request to consider my case on humanitarian grounds, as the decision to have a child at this stage was unavoidable due to some health reasons. At the same time, I am keen on pursuing my studies in the best way poss ible and look forward to developing a good career in law. I hope you will consider this matter seriously and comprehend the good intention and dedication that prompts me to request a transfer to a school in California.  

Tax systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Tax systems - Essay Example Indirect taxation leads to income effect. Income effect occurs when people find that they have surplus money and therefore their demand for goods and services increase. In case of no tax levied people after earning certain amount of income will start preferring leisure over work. Since indirect taxation increases the prices of goods and services people will have to work harder to keep up their standard of living and will have to earn more income to buy the same â€Å"basket† of goods that they were buying before and this will lead to more working hours in the economy. In this case, increase in taxation would result in increase in incentives for people to work hard and to expend more effort.ii) Regressive Taxation system is one where rich people pay lesser proportion of their income as tax than the poorer people. For example, a flat tax of $5 would make a higher proportion for someone earning $100/month than someone earning $200/month. For someone earning $100/month it would be 5%, whereas for the other guy it would be 2.5%. This kind of tax system is normally regressive and usually indirect taxation is regressive. On the other hand progressive system is one where rich people pay higher tax than the poor people. Income tax is usually progressive as it takes into account the income of people. Regressive taxation can be an incentive for people to work hard and earn more money, whereas as progressive systems can be a disincentiveSince regressive system leads to same amount of tax in absolute terms for both rich and poor., any additional work or money earned by poor people would reduce their proportion of income as tax. This makes people work harder to nullify the effects of regressive tax. For example, if someone is earning $100 and he knows that he will have to pay $5 in taxes every time irrespective of his income. He would try to increase his income to $105 to nullify the effects of the tax. This increase in income for $100 to $105 will increase his dispos able income after tax from $95 to $100. The person by earning more would be $5 richer. Hence, regressive tax system encourages increase in effort. People work harder to increase their disposable income to improve their standard of living. Progressive system can be a disincentive to work harder. Since, progressive tax increases with the additional income earned, many people would be put off from working harder as they will think that any increase in

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Edinburgh Rock Whisky Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Edinburgh Rock Whisky Business - Essay Example When Alan Graham was in South Africa, he happened to meet a friend of his who had managed to create a fortune for himself in the whisky industry. Graham’s friend had managed to do this by introducing a whisky by the name Mountain Range Whisky. The whisky was in a bottle that was shaped as the Table Mountain, the mountain that shadows Cape Town. Graham’s friend had steadily managed to derive profit from the sale of his whisky. Therefore, from this idea Graham thought of finding a bottling company that would he would purchase bottles that were shaped like the Edinburgh Rock and hence call it Edinburgh Rock Whisky.Market research is doing anything that gives one a better understanding of the market that one is venturing into. Market research is normally done before the production of a commodity and has often been proven a valuable thing to do. It is because a customer research guides one’s business decisions since gives one understanding of his/her competitors, mark eting, consumers and products. Since it helps one make better decision, it will certainly come in very handing in creating a successful and exceptional marketing strategy.Marketing helps one reduce the chances of getting the prices, products and promotions wrong. A suitable example is that of Alan Graham. If he had carried out a good market research, he would have known that there were chances that some institutions in Scotland would reject his product. In addition, he would have known that there was need to make a few adjustments to the ignition business plan.

Friday, August 23, 2019

How the Internet has Simplified the Business Transactions Article

How the Internet has Simplified the Business Transactions - Article Example E-commerce has evolved over the past several decades as discussed below in sequence; Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the changing of the business documents in a standard electronic format among business partners through the computer-to-computer. Both the end-user who engage in the demanding of the products and the factory worker who is tasked by supplying the product don’t have fear of the fundamental of technology that operates by capturing the requirement or the route that the signals transmitting demands follow via the Network Edge Soon after the buyer will be notified of the what is required has been recognized on the other end by the seller where he creates the product as demanded and delivery at the required destination and immediately payments are processed. Both the end user of the product and the maker of the product are concerned with demand and supply that is properly focused and the qualitative issues of customer satisfaction, responsiveness, and performance. E-Commerce services may be seen as it faces a list challenge since it is a paperless system, and paperwork documentation has been eliminated. Although creating and maintaining an e-commerce exchange is a complex task because traditional issues of pricing, quality, scheduling, liabilities, warranties, intellectual property, and risk management are all present, but are not visible to the user behind the HTML faà §ade of the Web site. Also, there are e-commerce- specific issues, which add complexity to the process of contract formation, which includes, Operational—defining the inner connections and functions of the exchange; Terms & Conditions—defining the relationship of the parties; a Transparency—defining the user experience.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Problem Solving Essay Example for Free

Problem Solving Essay How did you interpret the problem? The first time I read the problem, Ive interpreted it as a mental exercise to test how I can apply my problem-solving skills.   I saw the problem as something that needs a combination of strategy and logic to solve.   Ive met a problem of a similar nature sometime ago.   Although it was of a different kind, the idea is the same.   This problem will turn out to be confusing at first, but once Ill get a clearer picture of the sequence, then solving it will become possible. What strategy did you use and how did you evaluate your progress? At the start, Ive used the trial and error method.   By picking a random animal, I was able to find a step-by-step process that solved the problem.   I was able to evaluate my progress by constantly checking that I have followed the given conditions and the attempts at crossing have not produced negative results.   By successfully transferring one animal from one bank to another, while the remaining two were compatible told me that the steps I was following were correct. The first step I employed is to list down the given conditions in this problem.   These are: i) dog and cat cant be together; and ii) cat and mouse cant be together. Having those two sets of conditions, the next thing I did is to put the cat on the raft, leaving the dog and mouse on the riverbank.   That first attempt proved to be a failure because I dont know yet how to make the raft return to the other side without an animal on it.   The next thing I tried is to load the dog and the cat on the raft together to see if nothing will happen to the cat.   The condition only said that the cat will get eaten if left on the riverbank with the dog. But on reading the problem again, it says that only one animal can ride on the raft.   After discovering that the raft will cross the river without an animal, solving the problem became easy. River Problem 2 The problem can be solved by first leaving the cat on the other side while the man goes back to pick the dog.   On his way back, hell bring the cat with him.   Upon reaching the bank, hell bring the mouse and leave the cat.   He will then deposit the mouse with the dog while he goes back to fetch the cat. Did you encounter any obstacles while solving the problem? Yes. The first obstacle that Ive encountered is how to make one animal cross, leave it on the opposite bank, and bring the raft back to where the remaining animals are.   After Ive found out that the raft can travel across the river without an animal on it, the problem became easier to solve. Were you aware of this thought process as you worked through the problem? Yes, I was aware of how my mind was processing these thoughts as I was working through the problem.   This is basically a logic exercise, which suggests that in order to properly assess the problem, its necessary that youre aware of how your thought process is developing.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Value Conflicts Essay Example for Free

Value Conflicts Essay Looking at the article â€Å"Charge it to our children† written by Thomas L. Friedman, the obvious value conflict is monetary. Which is valued more, saving money in taxes, or pay for a war? However that question gives rise to another, more detrimental conflict†¦ should we even be fighting the war in Iraq? Many supporters of the war see no reason we shouldn’t pay for it, moreover the opposition undoubtedly feels they shouldn’t pay for something they don’t agree with. Friedman writes about a $1 per gallon tax on gasoline â€Å"which could reduce our dependence on Middle East oil dictators and reduce payroll taxes for low- income workers, pay down the deficit and fund the development of renewable energy†. Would we be willing to pay that amount to secure the future? Yet another type of value conflict now arises quality of live in the present as opposed to the quality of live for the future? Unfortunately money makes the world go around, where we decide to put it is always a conflict. This correlates with another article written by Freidman entitled â€Å"Generation Q† where he comments on the lackadaisical stance the younger generations have taken in regard to polity. He states that although we are more involved in the world, we are not riled up enough about our own prosperity. Should our generation sacrifice peace and political correctness in order to â€Å"light a fire under the country†? He tends to imply that we have become far too dependant on electronic communication. Should we give up the ease of e-mail in order to actually take time from our busy schedules to attend a rally? Would anyone else even show up? In the end it all boils down to a matter of proximity. Our country seems to have adopted the old out of sight, out of mind adage. I think we need to collectively do something, but are we willing to sacrifice our own self diluted cushy little lives in order to standup for ourselves, or will we go, uninspired and quiet into the darkness our future now holds. Works Cited â€Å"Charge it to Our Children† By Thomas L. Friedman. Published in the International Herald Tribune, October 7, 2007 http://www. iht. com/articles/2007/10/07/opinion/edfried. php â€Å"Generation Q† By Thomas L. Friedman. Written in young-Turks via Google Groups, October 10, 2007 http://groups. google. com/group/yotu/browse_thread/thread/5a20aa7a200eba46

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Mental State Examination (MSE) | Case Study

Mental State Examination (MSE) | Case Study Ellie Fitz-Gerald Giving examples from the case study, how would you describe Amanda’s behaviour and appearance as set out in a MSE? A mental state examination (MSE) is used to assess an individuals mental capacity and reasoning at the time of an interview. It couples a number of cognitive domains in an attempt to characterise a person’s mental state (PCDCBP, 2011). The first domain of a MSE is a visual assessment of the patient, non-judgementally describing an accurate appearance of the patient including as many details as possible. These aspects include but are not limited to age, gender, build, posture, grooming, hygiene, heath levels, signs of drug use, hair style and colour and ethnicity. Behaviour is another non-judgemental assessment of the patient’s behaviour in general, but also a description of eye movement and eye contact, body movement and any gestures that are made. This is often coupled with an interpretation of the patient’s reaction to their current situation; examples may include descriptions such as being cooperative, hostile, withdrawn or suspicious (PCDCBP, 2011). Appearance: Amanda is a young woman with dyed blue and pink hair, which is mattered and unkempt. She has a number of piercings in her nose, eyebrow and lip. Her arms are covered in sores and her pupils are dilated. On paramedic arrival, they described that Amanda was â€Å"sitting upright appearing dazed and anxious†. In the cubicle on arrival to ED, she appeared very tense. Later in the cubicle, Amanda is smiling and then quickly appears terrified. Amanda’s mother has reported that â€Å"she [Amanda] comes home dishevelled and dirty. She has lost a lot of weight†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Behaviour: Amanda’s behaviour over the course of the case study could be described as erratic, often shifting between states of anxiety, happiness and terror. On arrival of the paramedics, Amanda was described as â€Å"anxious and short of breath†. In the cubicle at the ED, Amanda was pacing up and down the corridor and wringing her hands occasionally, responding quickly to any stimulus by staring intensely at the ceiling or at staff members. A description of her eye sight involved her manner and gaze alternating â€Å"between being intrigued to afraid to hostile†, coupled with difficulty remaining still. Amanda was hesitant to be touched, and noted to be constantly picking at sores. Later, Amanda was later happy and quickly turned to terror and despair. Amanda is described by her mother in these examples; â€Å"Amanda hasn’t been herself since dropping out of university†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"She has lost contact gradually with nearly all of her friend an d become increasingly isolated†, â€Å"Over the last three months her behaviour has become increasingly odd and erratic†, â€Å"goes out, sometimes for days at a time†, â€Å"talking loudly to herself in her room†¦over the past week she has been shouting†¦but there was no one in her room with her.†, â€Å"Last night she burst out of her bedroom and screaming incomprehensibly at her father then stopped suddenly and went back into her room.† Define cognition and then briefly discuss how we might interpret how both Amanda’s thought content and thought form are disturbed? According to Miller and Wallis (2009), cognitive or executive control, or cognition, refers to the ability to coordinate thought and action and direct it toward obtaining goals. Cognition is important in planning and sequencing complex events of behaviour, as well as prioritizing goals (Miller and Wallis, 2009). Thought content and processing is a somewhat subjective insight into cognitive capacity. For example, thought process can be a description of a patients thinking and a characterisation of how a patient’s ideas are communicated. The speed of thought is how quickly a patient changes ideas, known as ‘flight of ideas’ (Snyderman and Rovner, 2009). An example exhibited by Amanda is in the ED cubicle where she had asked the clinician â€Å"You wont tell her anything will you?†, quickly progressing through a series of thoughts from â€Å"you know don’t you?† to â€Å"They’re everywhere† to â€Å"The whole planet is falling† and then â€Å"Shut up shut up†. Additionally, thought form is another domain which could be described as goal-directed or conversely, disorganised. These terms carry descriptors, describing whether a patients thoughts are logical, tangential (quickly diverging, as shown through Amanda’s haphazard thought progression), circumstantial (unsupported thinking) or loosely associated (Snyderman and Rovner, 2009). Amanda displays a number of disorganized thought categories, stating â€Å"Everyone of us is falling – the whole planet is falling† is a description of both unsupported thinking, and potentially an illusion Amanda is experiencing. Another interpretation of disordered thought is that of intrusive thoughts or obsessive ideas. As severity of mental health illness increases, patients may exhibit delusional thinking (a false belief not held by peers that persists despite evidence to the contrary), hallucinations (false perception of sensory stimuli) or illusions (a misperception of real life) (Mar tin, 1990). Amanda illustrates both hallucinations and illusions. Amanda seems to demonstrate hallucinations through multiple spoken phrases: â€Å"They’re everywhere. Everywhere†¦under my skin†, â€Å"Shut up, shut up†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"Can’t you hear what they’re saying?! All the children have been hurt†. Taken together, Amanda’s thought content and process appears compromised. Briefly explain the differences between hearing and listening. Choose two skills of listening and discuss how you would use these skills to effectively communicate with Amanda. What are some of the barriers you might face in the process? Hearing is the process of physiological receiving and processing sounds, without being fully attentive or actively concentrating on what is being said. This is passive listening. In contrast, listening is an active process, paying attention to what is being said, constructing meaning from, and in addition, often responding appropriately to what has been said using astute observation (Purdy and Borisoff, 1997). Listening is necessary for the health professional as it involves more than simply sending and receiving words, and can validate the patient’s emotions and promote an understanding between patient and health professional. Hearing on the other hand does not continue or encourage interaction. Listening can be enhanced by actively applying numerous measures. Two of these are providing non-verbal cues and picking up on the non-verbal cues of the patient. Providing non-verbal cues to Amanda would encourage a non-judgemental and mutual understanding environment, often involvin g the implementation of an acronym SOLER (Sit squarely, Open posture, Lean forward, Eye-contact, Relaxed) (Egan 2002). In addition to this, nodding the head and quiet murmurs as encouragement also aids active listening, this may assist in making Amanda feel better understood, and potentially play a role in reducing her defensiveness to a medical situation. Secondly, picking up on non-verbal cues from the patient is critical in making them feel understood. A health professional should endeavour to pay careful attention to what the patient is expressing and how they are displaying these emotions. This may manifest through facial expression, body posture, movements or excessive/poor eye contact and illustrate a patient’s emotion or frame of mind (Egan, 2002). In Amanda’s situation, recognizing that she is in distress by verbally acknowledging it may led to some kind of mutual understanding and rapport building between Amanda and the health professional. Some barriers to t his include Amanda’s current inability to adequately perceive her environment correctly. Amanda does not seem as aware of her surroundings and stares often at the ceiling. She may be inattentive to the non-verbal postural cues by the health professional aimed to place her at ease. Her responses may be skewed and irrational, and the potential hallucinations that she may be experiencing are external to any verbal communication that can resolve her distress. Define therapeutic communication. Using case study examples, explain the difficulties involved in communication when managing a complex scene that includes an anxious patient who presents in the emergency department with a distressed and demanding relative. Therapeutic communication occurs between a health professional and a patient, which considers a patients experienced emotion and explores the meaning and potentially faulty cognition in an attempt to resolve them. It is often formal, purposeful and structured, with a long term goal to produce a desired change (Plutchik, 2000). Managing patient anxiety in a scenario with a demanding relative has its challenges. When paramedics have arrived to the scene of Amanda, her mother is quite distressed, yet Amanda is highly anxious, â€Å"The mother is constantly obstructing and getting in their way causing interruptions†. The assertiveness of Amanda’s mum may obfuscate the ability of the paramedics to create a therapeutic relationship with Amanda in order to de-escalate the situation. Furthermore, this may worsen the anxiety experienced by Amanda. Moreover, attention may be given to the mother in order to place her at ease. One manner to reduce this difficulty is to try to separ ate the parties. In the ED, this dynamic may result in similar difficulties, and the presence of a demanding relative in this context could potentially result in Amanda having difficulty communicating additional information due to her anxiety. Although in the case study Amanda’s mum is not particularly difficult, in the scenario where a distressed and demanding relative was present in the ED and hindering patient treatment the best course of action would be to kindly ask them to take a seat in the waiting area. If the distressed relative is being quite difficult to handle other tactics include asking relative to go and get an item such as a drink for the patient, which would require that they leave the area. If the relative continues to cause disruption to the patient care they must be informed that if they cannot allow the healthcare team to complete their care for the patient they will be removed from the area/hospital. What are the key components of an effective handover between health professionals from different disciplines? Discuss the important considerations of patient handover in regards to objective information and confidentially. A clinical handover is the transfer of professional responsibility, accountability, clinical information and patient to another set of health professionals on a permanent or temporary basis. In order for an effective handover to occur, numerous considerations must take place. First, the handover should have clear leadership. Second, there should be support for the handover process to come from all levels of the medical team. Third, adequate information regarding the patient and the current situation and future direction should be provided if applicable. Fourth, tasks must be prioritised, further care plans put in place and unstable patients are reviewed in a rapid manner (AMA, 2006). A qualitative study on paramedic and emergency department handovers showed that paramedics wish for a consistency in the terminology used, a shared understanding of the team members in each of the roles of health professionals, and a standardized approach to handovers, such as a predetermined format whic h is flexible and recognises professional judgement and experience (Owen et al. 2009). A problem arises when considering the objectiveness of information that is acquired from various sources. In order to address this, health professionals should speak non-judgementally, and take note of what was observed, as opposed to spoken by the patient, or reported by a significant other in terms of incidents. These processes maintain some level of objectiveness. Confidentiality is a necessary and critically important obligation and law-binding role of all health professionals. One manner to protect confidentiality would be to initiate handover in an area whereby members of the public cannot overhear. Reference List AMA (2006) Safe handover: Safe patients: Guidance on clinical handover for clinicians and managers. Australian Medical Association. Kingston, ACT, Australia. Egan, G. (2002) The skilled helper: a problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping. 7th edition. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole. Miller, EK, and Wallis, JD (2009) Executive Function and Higher-Order Cognition: Definition and Neural Substrates. In: Squire LR (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, volume 4, pp. 99-104. Oxford: Academic Press. Martin, DC (1990) Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition., Butterworth Publishers Owen, C, Hemmings, L, Brown, T (2009) Lost in translation: Maximizing handover effectiveness between paramedics and receiving staff in the emergency department, Emergency Medicine Australasia, 21: pp. 102-107. PCDCBP (2011) Understanding the Mental State Examination (MSE): a basic training guide. Palmerston Association Inc. Subiaco, WA. Plutchik, R (2000) Emotions in the practice of psychotherapy: Clinical implications of affect theories. American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, US. pp. 149-168. Purdy, M and Borisoff, D (1997) Listening in everyday life: A personal and professional approach. Second Edition. University Press of America Inc. LLanham, Maryland. Snyderman, D and Rovner, BW (2009) Mental Status Examination In Primary Care: A Review. Am Dam Physician, 15(80): pp. 809-814. 1

Monday, August 19, 2019

Asher Levs Crucifixion Paintings as an Act of Disrespect Towards His P

Asher Lev's Crucifixion Paintings as an Act of Disrespect Towards His Parents Asher Lev paints against the values of his family and community. He disregards Jewish traditions and observance by pursuing his passion for art. His individuality has him disobeying the Rebbe, the mashphia, his mythic ancestor as well as his parents. Asher does not intend for his artwork to be harmful, but that they convey truths and feelings. Yet, the Brooklyn Crucifixions cause shame for his observant Jewish parents. In that way, he disrespects their teachings and wishes. He challenges the Jewish belief on modesty in creating nude works and disturbs the Hasidic community in his Christian imagery. Worst of all is the reflection of the life-like representation of his family in the paintings. This causes a shocked and angry reaction from the public. The climax evolves towards the last chapter of My Name is Asher Lev, when Asher's parents react hurtingly after the paintings are exposed to them in the New York Museum. Chaim Potok writes their reaction as happening slowly in a step-by-st ep movement; in silences; building up readers' expectations of a negative outcome. Guilt and fear of disobedience induces a silence from Asher. "They're not the truth, Papa; but they're not lies either". Asher appears to be speaking in his mind while thinking of the memories that the pictures portray. He disregards his father's lesson on how 'one Jew can cause the rest of the Jews to suffer'. Asher feels his disrespect as a son and justifies himself in his mind, but does not speak to his parents about the Cruxifixion paintings at all. Disrespect for his parents makes Asher scared. He anticipates their disappointment and hurt. Readers sympathize in acknowledging his inner suffering as he struggles to communicate freely with them. Asher fears his father's reaction more than his mother's reaction for it is his father that disapproves of Asher drawing in the first place. The father appears to be the one who should be feared the most. Other characters suggest this, for example, Asher's teacher who says,"What will your father say if he saw this?" in regards to the picture of the Rebbe Asher drew in his Chumash. His mother is more supportive of Asher and just wants him and his father to get along. After finishing their journey for the Rebbe, she says " I want you and your father to be friends", The te... ugly sickening picture of the boy at school. Asher and his art is an ultimate form of disrespect towards his parents and perhaps the Jewish community. They warn him of the day of hurt and resent like the opening day of Asher's paintings in the New York Museum. Asher's father returns from Russia, and says "Do not forget your people Asher" It is the same as if one Jew aches, the whole community hurts, Asher's mythic ancestor haunts him in his dream, and indicates that his art is a waste of time at the end of Chapter 4. It is Asher's 'gift' that separates him from the Jewish community. He causes so much pain for his parents and the community that the only resolution is too send Asher away, which the Rebbe does at the end. Like the father and the mother, Asher is journeying for him to prevent Jews from suffering. The conclusion ends with Asher's parents watching in silence as Asher's cab pulls away. Similarly, at the museum, he had watched his parents, who did not utter a voice or a glance at him, pull away in a cab. In his parents' eyes, Asher has crossed the boundary of obedience and disrespect, with such immense rage and hurt that it causes a deadly silence between them.

Three Different Types of Human Memory Essay example -- Human Mind, Bra

"Memory is the diary we all carry about with us," Oscar Wilde once said. Now for a second imagine a life without any memories! One wouldn't be able to remember his/her name, how to look after themselves or to even recognize their own friends and family. It would be impossible to live happily without ones memories. That is why our memories are such vital points in our lives. They are the building blocks of our current selves. Due to those reasons it is very useful to find as much information regarding it as possible. For that very purpose this research paper has been written. The purpose of this research is to uncover the truth regarding how the human brain stores and retrieve memories. Throughout this research, topics such as definition of memory, types of memory, diseases resulting in difficulties with memory, as well as the most known phenomena dà ©jà  vu which is caused by a certain type of memory process will be discussed. The word memory can be defined in many ways depending on the field that the term memory is used in. To start of, the most commonly used definition for the term memory is the name given to the human’s ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the brain. It is a sum of what we remember in total and it enables us to learn and adapt from previous experiences and to build relationships. Etymologically, the modern English word memory has originated from the passed down Latin word memoria and memor which means mindful and remembering. In neurological and psychological terms memory is simply classified as a set of encoded neural connections in the brain. Since the development of the computer in the 1940s, the word memory is also used to describe the ability of a compu... Mastin (2010). The Human Memory. Retrieved January 26, 2014, from Memory of Time May Be Factor in Parkinson's (vol.21). (1996). Retrieved from Columbia University Record website: University of Toronto (2004, May 7). Scientists Uncover How Brain Retrieves And Stores Older Memories. Science Daily. What makes the human brain unique? (n.d.). Retrieved January 26, 2014, from When deja vu is more than just an odd feeling. (2006, February 13). Retrieved from

Sunday, August 18, 2019

History Of Basketball :: Sports

The game of basketball has evolved a great deal throughout the years. Basketball was invented on December 21, 1891. The inventor of the game was a Canadian clergyman, James Naismith (Joseph Morse, 1973). The game of basketball was fashioned from fragments of other games, seeking to eliminate flaws of indoor rugby, soccer and lacrosse. Naismith also borrowed aspects from the children’s game â€Å"Duck-on-a-Rock,† in which children tried to knock off a rock from a boulder by tossing smaller rocks from about 20 feet away (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). There has been no question that basketball was first played in the United States. In fact, the first game was played at the International Young Men’s Christian Association Training School, now called Springfield College. (Joseph Morse, 1973) Naismith invented basketball as an alternative to the calisthenics and marching his students practiced to keep fit in the winters (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). Basketball was a simple game, which consists of a ball and a basket. The very first ball that was used was a soccer ball until 1894 when an actual â€Å"basketball† was invented. The basketball was slightly smaller, about 30 inches in diameter (William D.Halsey, 1975). While, the first baskets that were used were two peach baskets that were hung from the balcony of the gymnasium (Frank G. Menke, 1970). By 1906, the peach baskets were replaced by metal baskets with holes in the bottom. These holes were placed in the basket so a long pole could be used to poke the basketball out of the basket. This was better then in the early days, when a ladder was used to climb and fetch the ball out of the basket. Finally, in 1913 a hoop with a net was invented so the basketball could fall freely to the ground (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). In my opinion, the invention of the hoop and net was a major step in the game of basketball. Due to the free falling ball the game’s tempo increased whic h allowed the game of basketball to develop even more. In 1893, due to the overzealous spectators interfering with the basketball, the backboard was invented. The first backboard was constructed out of wire mesh, then wood and now it is made out of glass so the backboard does not interfere with the viewing of the game (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). Around this time, there was no name for this game. Students wanted to call the game â€Å"Naismith Ball,† but in did not take. History Of Basketball :: Sports The game of basketball has evolved a great deal throughout the years. Basketball was invented on December 21, 1891. The inventor of the game was a Canadian clergyman, James Naismith (Joseph Morse, 1973). The game of basketball was fashioned from fragments of other games, seeking to eliminate flaws of indoor rugby, soccer and lacrosse. Naismith also borrowed aspects from the children’s game â€Å"Duck-on-a-Rock,† in which children tried to knock off a rock from a boulder by tossing smaller rocks from about 20 feet away (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). There has been no question that basketball was first played in the United States. In fact, the first game was played at the International Young Men’s Christian Association Training School, now called Springfield College. (Joseph Morse, 1973) Naismith invented basketball as an alternative to the calisthenics and marching his students practiced to keep fit in the winters (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). Basketball was a simple game, which consists of a ball and a basket. The very first ball that was used was a soccer ball until 1894 when an actual â€Å"basketball† was invented. The basketball was slightly smaller, about 30 inches in diameter (William D.Halsey, 1975). While, the first baskets that were used were two peach baskets that were hung from the balcony of the gymnasium (Frank G. Menke, 1970). By 1906, the peach baskets were replaced by metal baskets with holes in the bottom. These holes were placed in the basket so a long pole could be used to poke the basketball out of the basket. This was better then in the early days, when a ladder was used to climb and fetch the ball out of the basket. Finally, in 1913 a hoop with a net was invented so the basketball could fall freely to the ground (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). In my opinion, the invention of the hoop and net was a major step in the game of basketball. Due to the free falling ball the game’s tempo increased whic h allowed the game of basketball to develop even more. In 1893, due to the overzealous spectators interfering with the basketball, the backboard was invented. The first backboard was constructed out of wire mesh, then wood and now it is made out of glass so the backboard does not interfere with the viewing of the game (Lauren S. Bahr, 1995). Around this time, there was no name for this game. Students wanted to call the game â€Å"Naismith Ball,† but in did not take.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Protection of Children from Sexual Offences: Law and Its Effectiveness

PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL OFFENCES: LAW AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS *INTRODUCTION Childhood is considered to be the most crucial phase of human growth and also the most memorable one. It is much more than just the space between birth and the attainment of adulthood. It is a precious time in which children should live free from fear, safe from violence and protected from abuse and exploitation. It’s time for children to be in school and at playground, to grow strong and confident with the love and encouragement of the family and an extended community of caring adults.But what if the childhood becomes a never ending nightmare? A childhood where child refuses to go to school out of an unusual fear? A childhood where he refuses to play outside as he is scared to be surrounded by people? Just imagine a childhood when his own house, the safest place for a child turns out to be an exploitation camp by his own inmates. The entire childhood get raped! We can’t imagine of anyt hing more horrific. The stories of abuse and exploitation of children is all around us. We read about them in the papers, watch them in news and see hundreds of children being exploited as we go about our everyday lives.As per a study conducted by Ministry of women and child department, 53 percent of children in India have suffered some kind of sexual abuse in their childhood and the more shocking fact is that unlike the ordinary notion, 50 percent abusers are known to the child or in a position of trust or responsibility. *CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE DEFINED Child abuse may be emotional, mental, physical or sexual and encompasses a much wider gamut of actions . On the other hand Child sexual abuse is that which targets sexuality and/or sexual organs, involves sexual gestures, words, pictures, actions.It’s the most heinous manifestation of abuse of children as it traumatizes the child for the whole life in all ways, sexually, physically, psychologically and socially, leaving behind a scarred childhood and a disillusioned adulthood caused by the past memories. According WHO, child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give consent to or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. While releasing the Report on Child abuse in India, 2007, Women and child Development minister, Renuka Chaudhary said â€Å"child abuse is shrouded in secrecy and here is a conspiracy of silence around the entire subject†. Both the government and the NGO’S working in this field find it difficult to get the accurate data. *INDIAN CONSTITUTION, INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION AND THE LEGISLATIVE LAWS: RECOGNITION OF THE CHILD RIGHTS AND THEIR PROTECTION Looking into the details of child abuse in India, our legal framework and the relevant legislations, Indian constitution recognising the vulnerable position of children and various crimes against children that are linked to sexual abuse provides fo r their protection from such offences.Article 15 provides for special attention to children through necessary and special laws and policies that safeguard their interest. Article 23 provides protection against human trafficking and forced labour. Article 24 and 39 specifically prohibits children from engaging in hazardous employment and protection from exploitation respectively. Thus Indian constitution has provided for a framework which serves as a direction to the legislature to make child protection laws.India’s commitment to the issue is also emboldened by the fact that India is a signatory nation to the UN Convention on the Rights of Child, 1989. One important regional convention here is the SAARC convention on preventing and combating trafficking in women and children, 2002. Looking at the legislative laws the parliament of India recently passed Protection of children from sexual offences Act, 2012. The act has filled a glaring lacuna in the law. We will get into the de tails of the Act at the later stage of the essay as the law has just come into force and we are yet to see its impact.To appreciate the new act we have understand the history of child sexual abuse laws in India and their effectiveness so far. Before the above mentioned law was passed the cases of child sexual abuse were dealt under the following sections of IPC. Section 375 defines rape; section 376 provides for the punishment of rape which shall not be less than seven years but which may extend to ten years unless the women raped is his own wife and is not under twelve years of age in which case, he shall be imprisoned with a term which may extend to two years or fine or both.When the girl is less than 12 years or where the rapist is a person in authority (in a hospital, children’s home, a police station etc. ), the punishment is greater; section 377 which relates to unnatural offences. This section is generally invoked when boy children are sexually abused; section 354 whic h deals with outraging the modesty of a woman or a girl and section 509, which relates to insulting the modesty of a woman. The ordinary criminal laws are totally inadequate to protect the children from sexual abuse.IPC does not recognize the term â€Å"child sexual abuse†. Firstly section 375 restricts itself to just penile penetration. Secondly it does not treat forced sexual intercourse by a husband against the wife (above 15 years) as an offence. Thirdly there is no statutory definition of modesty. It carries a weak penalty and is a compoundable offence. Moreover it does not address outraging the modesty of a male child. Fourthly sexual offences against men are covered under section 377 which does not cover the offence adequately. The term unnatural offence in not defined.It only applies to victims penetrated by their attacker's sex act, and is not designed to criminalize sexual abuse of children . Lastly and most importantly IPC laws relating to sexual offences are not g ender neutral. This is due to an age long myth that only females are sexually abused and only males are abusers leaving the female abusers out. But the 2007 Report has given a severe blow to this long standing myth which revealed that out of total child victims, 52. 94 percent were boy children. Yes! It’s shocking. Male children are equally vulnerable and a boy being raped does exist!Besides IPC, there are other legislations also. Obscenity and pornography are dealt under the Young persons (harmful publications) Act, 1956. A young person means a person under the age of 20 years. It is an offence to sell, let, hire, distribute or publically exhibit harmful publications. Other than this under section 67 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 publication and transmission of pornography through the internet is an offence. The Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 deals primarily with children in conflict with the law and their rehabilitation.It does not provide adequately for children in n eed or identify offences against child victims * In addition to children other than those who are abused within their family by their relatives or friends or by strangers at any public place, there are three organised form of sexual abuse of children which are globally prevelant and form a major percentage of sexually abused children. And these three forms are trafficking in human, child labour and child marriage. Human Trafficking as defined in the Un is  Ã¢â‚¬Å"the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms f coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, force d labour or service, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. †Quoting from an article written by Havovi wadia â€Å"Among the Naths of Bihar, prostitution is a way of life.When a family doesn’t have a daughter, girls are purchased from other parts of the state and pushed into sex work so that the family can live off their earnings. † Children who work as domestic labour, or help in hotels and restaurants, are susceptible to sexual abuse at the hands of employers and customers. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention)Act protects children below the age of 16 from being used for the purposes of commercial sex. Immoral trafficking of children who generally leads to prostitution is one of the most heinous manifestations of violence against children.The US Department of State trafficking in Person report have placed India in Tier II watch list for a second consecutive year for having failed to combat human trafficking. A number of children go missing every year – some are sold by their families, some are kidnapped, others lured by the promise of a better life both for themselves and their kin. According to CRY (Child Rights and You). * 8,945 children go missing every year. * 500,000 children are estimated to be forced into the sex trade every year * Approximately 2 million child commercial sex workers are between the ages of 5 and 15 years * Approximately 3. million child commercial sex workers are between 15 and 18 years * Children form 40% of the total population of commercial sex workers * 80% of these children are found in the five metros – Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Bangalore * 71% of them are illiterate. Child marriage gives the abuser a societal passport to sexually abuse the child. Child marriage is practiced globally but it is especially prevalent in India where more than one third of all child brides live. According to UNICEF, 47% of girls are married by 18 years of age, and 18% are m arried by 15 years of age.A study conducted in  India  by International research centre for women  showed that girls married before 18 years of age are twice as likely to be beaten, slapped, or threatened by their husbands  and three times more likely to experience sexual violence. ]  Young brides often show symptoms of sexual abuse and post traumatic stress. Though the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 makes the practice of marrying girls under the age of 18 and boys under the age  of 21 punishable but its implementation has not been very effective. We can still find minor couple tying the knot on â€Å"Akkha teej†, a summer festival believed to be auspicious for wedding.This is gross violation of law. Many in urban slum areas get their children married young to protect them from sexual abuse. Once a girl attains puberty she begins to be seen as sexually available. For some parents marriage is the only way to ensure that the girl is ‘unavailableâ€⠄¢ to others for abuse. The 2007 Report reveals the percentage of child sexual abuse is highest in work areas, which is 61. 61 percent. The Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 Section 26 (Exploitation of Juvenile or Child Employee) provides for punishment if a person procures a juvenile for hazardous employment.The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act) was enacted in 1986, to specifically address the situation of  children in labour. However, this law distinguishes between hazardous and non-hazardous forms of labour, and identifies certain processes and occupations from which children are prohibited from working. It leaves out a large range of activities that children are engaged in and are exploited and abused. The large-scale exploitation and abuse of children employed in domestic work and hotels are cases in point.The other abuse Child trafficking is one of the most heinous manifestations of violence against children. *PROTECTION OF CHILDREN FROM SEXUAL OFFENCES ACT, 2012: ITS E FFECTIVENESS AND A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Now coming to the recent legislation which has addressed the various loop holes in the existing laws to a great extent is the Protection of children from sexual offences Act, 2012 . It’s a historic law . Though India became a signatory to the UN convention on the rights of the child back in 1992 but it took India twenty long years to enact a separate law dealing with the offences against children.The Act is headway stronger than all the earlier child sexual abuse laws. The Act, on the lines of the UN convention defines a child as any person below the age of 18 years and provides protection to all the children from the offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment and pornography. These offences have been clearly defined for the first time in law. Firstly it acknowledges and engages with sexual crimes of all kinds — real/virtual; penetrative/ non- penetrative; homosexual/ heterosexual/ bestial; verbal/ physical.This is a major improv ement on the earlier situation, when child sexual abuse was clubbed with sexual abuse of adults. Secondly it acknowledges that sexual violations can be of various kinds and that in the case of children, the state must take a clear punitive stand on any kind of sexual violation. Thirdly  it is gender inclusive, accepting that the perpetrators as well as the victims may be either male or female. It is otherwise commonly assumed that sexual abuse can only be initiated by a male upon a female.Fourthly it lays down stringent punishments (up to life imprisonment) for a broad range of sexual crimes such as nonpenetrative sexual assault, sexual harassment, and the use of children for pornography. Fifthly the legislation is also marked by the introduction of special procedures to prevent the re-victimisation of children at the hands of an insensitive justice delivery system. These include measures for recording a child's evidence, for protecting his or her identity and for providing childr en with assistance and expertise from professionals in the fields of psychology, social work and so on.Sixthly for speedy trials the Act has provided for the establishment of special courts and the evidence of the child to be recorded within a period of 30 days. Also, the Special Court is to complete the trial within a period of one year, as far as possible. And lastly giving due attention to vulnerability and innocence of children the Act has put the onus of innocence on the accused. The present act is certainly welcoming and addresses the sexual offences against children effectively and efficiently. The bill has taken a comprehensive view and has broadened the sphere of child sexual abuse.That said there is one provision of the Act which has sparked controversy and that is the â€Å"age of consent†. Eighteen has been kept the age of consent and any sexual activity between consenting adolescents would be considered criminal. People from different sections of the society and those working in the field of child rights have shown their disagreement with the view taken. Since this Act criminalises any sexual activity with persons under the age of 18 years (even if it is consensual), is said that the police may misuse it to harass the young ouples or parents may use this law to control olden children sexual behaviour. Additional sessions judge Kamini Lau,of a Delhi court ,while acquitting a youth of the charges of kidnapping and raping a 17-and-a-half-year-old girl, to whom he got married and is now having a child with, called the said provision of the Act of increasing the age of consent from 16 to18 to be â€Å"regressive† and â€Å"draconian†. The remarks were made while referring to the conditions in western countries where there are adequate safeguards for protection against sexual offences. No doubt, there is an urgent need to protect children from sexual offences, harassment and pornography but at the same time it is necessary to ensure a close-in-age reprieve and a lenient view in case of close-in-relationship as adopted by various western countries where there is no exploitative coercive situation including impersonation, fraud, fear, threat and false promises. The need is to correct this behaviour and not punish† she said. Flavia Agnes in Indianexpress said that the age of consent for sexual intercourse has always been contested.In 1860, 10 years was the stipulated minimum age. But the furore caused by the death of an 11-year-old girl at the hands of her 35-year-old husband through forcible penetration led to the raising of the age of consent to 12 years in 1892. Later, during the nationalist movement, when women’s groups entered the political arena, they highlighted the adverse effects of early pregnancy upon women’s health, and demanded that the age of consent to marriage and sexual intercourse be raised to 14 years. Then, the age was raised to 15 years in 1949, and later to 16 years.Conse nsual intercourse with a girl under this age was construed as â€Å"statutory rape†. But the provision made a concession to the husband, who was permitted to have sex with his wife if she was above the age of 15. This dichotomy and confusion persists as the age of marriage under the Hindu Marriage Act and the Prohibition of child marriage act is 18 years and 21 years for a female and a male respectively. The proposed bill aims to resolve this confusion by stipulating a uniform age for marriage as well as sex, and inadvertently contributes to a puritanical notion that marriage and sex are synonymous.Ms Taparia, founder of Mumbai-based organization â€Å"Arpan† which works in the field of child sexual abuse says â€Å"We need to treat the bracket of ages 16 to 18 differently. If a child is raped, then you bring it under the judicial purview, but if it’s consensual sex between two people who are both within the age bracket 16 to 18 years, then it shouldn’t be criminalized. Puberty is coming early†¦So it’s regressive to take the age of legal sex to 18 years†. *RESPONSIBILTY OF CHILD PROTECTION Children are vulnerable sections of the society which needs care and protection for their normal growth.Children are primarily considered to be the responsibility of their family. It’s true that there is no substitute of family’s love and care and their can’t be a better place for a child to live in but what if their own house turns out to be an exploitation camp? For the formation of a protective environment at macro level and for the proper enforcement of child laws it’s the collective responsibility of the family, community, civil society and the state. India has always been on a denial mode when it comes to incest. But the truth is rather shocking!A report from RAHI, a Delhi based NGO working with child sexual abuse titled ‘Voices from the Silent Zone’, suggests that nearly three-quar ters of upper and middle class Indian women are abused by a family member — often an uncle, a cousin or an elder brother. The infamous Incest Mira Road case rocked the whole country. The girl victim said in her statement that â€Å"There were times when I had given up on life completely. When a child is in trouble, he first approaches her parents for help and protection, but who would protect me from my own father who had behaved like a beast? † Who is to look after children in such a situation?Family certainly is a stakeholder but they couldn’t and are not the only protectors. Children are â€Å"national asset† to this country and it’s the collective responsibility of the family, state, NGO’S, community and the civil society to protect them. A child that grows up protected from violence and abuse is more likely to grow up physically and mentally healthy, confident and self-respecting and less likely to abuse or exploit others. By contrast, when children are left unprotected and vulnerable to exploitation and abuse their childhood their rights are fundamentally undermined.It was pointed out in The Essentials of child protection that ensuring a protective environment is the responsibility the governments, international organisation, civil societies, families and individuals. A protected environment is one in which a child is assured of living in safety and with dignity. It is one that ensures that children are in school, laws are in place to punish those who exploit children, governments are truly committed to protection, communities are aware of the risks that children faces, civil society addresses certain â€Å"taboo† issues and monitoring is in place to identify children who are at risk of exploitation.Children will never be free from exploitation until all levels of the society from the family to the international community work together. *PRESENT LEGAL SYSTEM AND THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILDREN: COMMISSIONS, POL ICIES AND PROGRAMMES The UN convention on the rights of the child has provided for four basic rights to every child and these are survival, development, protection and participation. India is a signatory to this convention. To fulfil its commitment we have already mentioned the various legislations that have been enacted to protect the child rights.Other than that to facilitate the laws made, several policies have been enacted. The National policy for children was enacted in 1924. The National charter for children was adopted in 2003. This charter consists of the inherent rights of a child and that the state is duty bound to provide the same. Among other rights it includes protection from economic exploitation and all forms of abuse. Several Ministries and Departments of the Government of India are implementing various schemes and programmes for the benefit of children.Integrated child development service scheme is one such scheme that has taken various other governmental schemes un der its purview. Government of India has also set up the childline India foundation, an organization to provide assistance to children. It has a toll free number on which anybody can seek help in the interest of the child. An important step has been taken by the govt with the establishment of National commission for protection of child rights under the commission of the protection of child rights Act, 2005. t is an important step because the Commission's Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. It also provides for the establishment of state commission for the protection of child rights. It mainly aims to decentralize the commission at district and state level so that grass root problems can be addressed effectively. NEEDED REFORMS IN THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK, GROUND WORK AND OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHILDREN *Governmental commitment towards child protection: The Government has got a very crucial role to play in the creation of protective environment for children by the formulation of effective policies, strong legal framework and programming and allocation of adequate resources to the programme. An exercise of budgeting conducted by Ministry of Women and child Development, revealed that the share of the union budget for children in 2006-2007 was 4. 91%, of this the share of child protection was 0. 34%. According to 2001 census, children constitute 42% of India’s population which is a huge population to look after. And with number they certainly deserve more space and attention in the annual budget. At the programmatic level, the existing mechanism for child protection in India is primarily based on several small schemes implemented by different ministries and department. The need is to centralize these schemes under a single programme which specifically addresses child protection rights. Setting up laws is not enough. Implementation has always been a problem in India.The concerned ministry must ensure that laws are being followed. *Attitude and Practices: It must be ensured that we are living in a society that does not facilitate exploitation. Such as even after strict prohibition laws we still see and read about child marriage, devdasis still exist in many parts of the country, female genital mutilation for the misunderstood religious beliefs, Myths such as sexual intercourse with children cures sexually transmitted diseases (this is rampant in Africa). society must be freed from such practices to create a child friendly environment. Open discussion including civil society and child participation: There should be open discussion about sexuality and some basic sex education must be added to the curriculum in schools. Very often children do not even realize that they are being abused. The children must be taught to break the silence and this can be done only by confidence building. The National commission for the protection of child rights has provided for state commissions. Till now 15 states have establish the commissions in their states. This should be followed in rest of the sates also.There should be further decentralization at the district and block level. The commission has also stresses on the participation of children. Children are less vulnerable to abuse when they know their rights are not to be exploited and when they know the services available to protect them. In Brazil, the street children have found in the National movement of street boys and girls, a space for participation that has permitted them to become aware of their rights and a platform to fight for their rights. Consulting children can be of immense help to policy makers and planners.In Bangladesh, to develop a national plan of action against sexual abuse and exploitation several children such as those involved in sex work were consulted. Most of the children’s recommendation were included in the National plan of 2002 a ‘child task force’ is also established as a part of monitoring and implementation of the plan. Youth parliaments both at the national and the state level should be established and this should be extended to street children also other than school going children. If not government than this can also be organized by NGO’S. let their voices be heard.It would give them a common platform to discuss their grievances and other issues. Capacity of families and communities:  All those who interact with children—parents, teachers, religious leaders alike – should observe protective child-rearing practices and have the knowledge, skills, motivation and support to recognize and respond to exploitation and abuse. As pointed out in Report 2007 parents do not speak to children about sexuality as well as physical and emotional changes that take place during their growing years. As a result of this, all forms of sexual abuse that a child faces do not get reported to anyone.It was pointed out in the Report 2007 that the girl, whose mother has not spoken to her even about a basic issue like menstruation, is unable to tell her mother about the uncle or neighbour who has made sexual advances towards her. This silence encourages the abuser so that he is emboldened to continue the abuse and to press his advantage to subject the child to more severe forms of sexual abuse. Parents should create friendly relations with their child and tell them about their sexual organs slowly. Children should be told about â€Å"safe and unsafe touch†.Parents should have an â€Å"I believe you† approach and must not blame the children for the abuse. IT’S NOT THEIR FAULT! Schools can play an important role here. Annual workshops on child protection should be conducted in schools. Every school should also have a grievance cell where child counselling can be done. M onitoring, reporting and oversight:  There should be monitoring, transparent reporting and oversight of abuses and exploitation. As per Report 2007, only 3. 4 percent of children were found to have reported to the police. Almost 12 percent told their parents where as 72. 1 percent of children kept quiet.Parents, individuals, friends and neighbour should always report the matter to the police or should at least seek help from any concerned Ngo’s. Any silence will only encourage the abuse. CONCLUSION Children while constituting 40% of our population are â€Å"national asset†. Their development, protection and safety are not only our responsibility but is essential for the country’s growth as a whole. As we said in the beginning of the essay, it’s just not the child but entire childhood gets raped. Most of children get raped even before they get to know that there is something called â€Å"rape†, â€Å"abuse†, or â€Å"sexual assault†. In fact the whole society gets raped. There cannot be anything more heinous than sexually targeting the vulnerable children who are absolutely unaware of the perverted thoughts prevailing around them. All the malpractices associated with the children should be seriously looked upon and we need to be more sensitive towards children. Protecting children is our collective responsibility. Moreover it’s high time we replace the word â€Å"vulnerable† with â€Å"empowered†. Our policies should be based on empowering the children. It’s their right to have a happy and save childhood.Legislature should make strict and effective laws. The present Protection of children from sexual offences Act, 2012 is certainly the strongest and most effective so far. The government must see that the implementation machinery is working effectively. The various NGO’S working for the child rights should keep a check on the implementation process. This is what they can do. Rep orting the matter to the police or to any concerned authority, looking after the child and breaking the wall of â€Å"silence† is our responsibility. Give the children what is theirs. All they are asking for is a happy and a safe childhood! ————————————————————————————————————– Submission by- Name: Swati Ghildiyal Course: LLB, 2nd year College: Campus law centre, Faculty of law, Delhi University. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. wcd. nic. in/childabuse. pdf [ 2 ]. ibid [ 3 ]. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights— civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. It stresses on special care and protection of children worldwide. 4 ]. http://infochangeindia. org/children/analysis/the-sounds-of-silence-child-sexual-abuse-in-india. html [ 5 ]. http://www. state. gov/documents/organization/47255. pdf [ 6 ]. http://america. cry. org/site/know_us/cry_america_and_child_rights/statistics_underprivileged_chi. html [ 7 ]. http://www. theelders. org/docs/child-marriage-factsheet. pdf [ 8 ]. http://www. unicef. org/infobycountry/india_statistics. html [ 9 ]. United States Agency for International Development, 2007, â€Å"New Insights on Preventing Child Marriage: A Global Analysis of Factors and Programs,† pg. 9 [ 10 ]. http://www. icrw. rg/child-marriage-facts-and-figures [ 11 ]. A lawyer and director of â€Å"Majlis†http://www. majlisbombay. org [ 12 ]. http://www. indianexpress. com/news/consent-and-controversy/948277/ [ 13 ]. http://www. arpan. org. in/ [ 14 ]. http://www. rahifoun dation. org/home. html [ 15 ]. http://articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2009-03-21/mumbai/28047758_1_tantrik-hasmukh-rathod-girl [ 16 ]. http://www. childlineindia. org. in/pdf/Essentials-of-child-protection-Oct%2008. pdf [ 17 ]. http://wcd. nic. in/childabuse. pdf [ 18 ]. Child and the Law, by Laxmidhar chouhan, 2008 edition, page no. 48 and 53.