Friday, November 29, 2019
Executive Summary Workforce diversity is an issue that has generated sufficient interest from business managers, and scholars. Simply put effective management of workforce diversity as recognizing, understanding and appreciating the uniqueness of each individual in the staff. This should however not be motivated only by the potential to increase profit margin. Even so, a diverse workforce might result in increase employee creativity and innovation.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Managing Workforce Diversity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Similarly, an employer who has a good reputation of managing effectively the workforce will automatically attract, recruit and retain the best talent. As result, this group will bring on board different knowledge and experience of dealing with a diverse client base. On the other hand, diversity has its limitations. Some employees might not fit in very well and hence fail to p lay along the team for general good of the organization. Despite this, the benefits outweigh the limitation as portrayed IBM Company and Bank of Montrel. Both the two companies have a reputation of advocating for a diverse workforce. They have included workforce diversification in their corporate strategy and set programs to ensure they achieve these objectives. As a result, they have achieved tremendous success and increased employee productivity. Perhaps, the only challenge they have had to face in the process is committing most of their time and resources (money) in pursuing this endeavour. Introduction Without a doubt, the greatest asset an organization can have is its human resource. Therefore, issues affecting the staff have increasingly become popular among business managers, scholars, policy makers and other stake holders. One issue that have particularly generated sufficient interest is managing workforce diversity. OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006) defines diversity simpl y as way of differentiating one person from another. Diversity is about recognizing and appreciating the uniqueness of each person. People can be different in terms of race, sexual orientation, age, gender and physical abilities just to mention a few (Burke 2007). As a result, workforce diversity has become a major business concern. Managing it should not be merely motivated by the potential of increasing the profit margin but also, should be to ensure the work environment is conducive, safe and nurturing (OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington 2006). Any business that manages its workforce effectively is bound to enjoy several benefits. Advantages of Workforce diversity It would be hypocritical not to acknowledge the fact that most business primarily exist with an intention of profit maximization. As result, most of the organization activities will be geared towards achieving this goal. Efficient management of the workforce diversity can accelerate the process by increasing the companyÃ¢â¬â ¢s competitive edge (Ongori Agolla 2007).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006) pointed out that are diversified staff is likely to be more creative, innovative and generally possess a relatively high ability of coming up with quality work. As oppose to a homogeneous group, when a diverse group gets acquainted to one another, their job performance becomes superior due to an efficient interaction process (Ongori Agolla 2007). Workforce diversity has also been credited with the ability of increasing the market share. This is because a diversified organization has the necessary resources, in terms of skill, to deal with a multicultural client base. Similarly, various studies have established that most customers prefer to deal with people who they perceive to possess similar attributes as theirs. This factor particularly becomes important to an or ganization which is looking to venture into new and foreign markets, such as a different country (Burke 2007). Another very important point is the fact that according to Burke (2007), a significant group of customers generally favour those organizations that seem to encourage workforce diversity. Having an effective employer brand can significantly increase a business profit margin. This is because; an employer who is positively perceived will automatically attract, recruit and retain the best talent. Workforce diversity is one factor that has enhances this brand. According to Burke (2007), companies that have a diversified workforce and therefore a strong brand, enjoy reduced cost associated with the recruitment process by almost 40%. After recruiting the best talent, consisting of diverse individuals, the quality of management is most likely going to be improved. This is due to the fact managers are forced by various legislation and ethical guidelines to adopt anti-discriminatory policies. Manager also gain additional skills of handling different types of people and therefore are prepared to deal even with are more diverse client base (Burke 2007). Disadvantages Despite the overwhelming merits associated with workforce diversity, there still exist some negative factors that have been associated with it. OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006) actually pointed out that workforce diversity can be a double edge sword. This is especially true if the organization manages it primary for the purpose of profit maximization. Unfortunately, most management efforts are geared towards this goal. Mismanaging the workforce diversity makes an organization prone to various set backs. To begin with, the morale of the workers becomes dampened. From reviewing various literatures, OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006) discovered that when an employee fails to identify with a certain group, he or she loses the morale and consequently experience job dissatisfaction.Advertising We wi ll write a custom report sample on Managing Workforce Diversity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Browder Miller (2009) there are certain groups of people who react adversely to various initiatives adopted to manage the workforce diversity. For example, a study indicated that women and people from ethnic minority will react positively to a diversified work force. However, white male showed a negative attitude towards these initiatives and even become less productive. When diversity is not positively appreciated by the workforce, an organization will automatically experience a number of stumbling blocks. These barriers will include an upsurge in interpersonal conflict, diminished commitments level, and automatically lack of team work (OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington 2006). Case Studies As outlined by OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006), the issue is not whether or not to diversify the workforce, diversify is inevitable; the iss ue is how to effectively manage diversification. There are number of organizations that have successful been able to do this and as a result have enjoyed tremendous success. A good example includes the following. International Business Machine (IBM) IBM is a multinational company specializing in information technology and business consulting. Over its long and outstanding history, the company has achieved tremendous success. For example in the year 2000, Forbes magazine ranked it as the world second largest Information and Technology Company both in terms of market capitalization and profitability. Similarly, recent data ranks it as number four in terms of size and number two in terms of Global brand value; coming second after Coca-cola company (Browder Miller 2009). Workforce Diversity at IBM Among the factors attributed to its success is its effective management of workforce diversity. Ted Childs, one of its retired executive, was in fact in 2000 named by a reporter in the Fast C ompany magazine as the most effective diversity executive in the world. Long before the need to effectively manage workforce diversity became an issue, IBM had already incorporated it in its policies as a major strategic objective. Currently the management practices and policies guiding the workforce diversity are well expanded to focus on matters beyond the normal issues such as gender, race, religion, and physical abilities (Browder Miller 2009). Equal opportunity, affirmative action and work/life are the most notable programs this company has taken on to effectively manage its workforce diversity. By equal opportunity, the company implies that all its business activities are free of any form of discrimination. It is the duty of every manager to ensure the workplace environment is conducive for all employees.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Regardless of colour, physical ability, gender, sexual orientation or any other unique attribute, every employee in the organization has an equal chance of pursuing and advancing in their career to the best of their ability. This is in line with equity theory which implies that employees usually expect to be rewarded according to their efforts (IBM 2007; OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington 2006). IBM management also acknowledges not all employees are able to compete on an equal ground. When the environment is left on its own without any form of control, some employees will be at a disadvantage. Some of these employees include the disabled, women, aboriginals, among others. Therefore, it was deemed appropriate to formulate an affirmative action that ensured all factors hindering this group of people are excluded (IBM 2007). For example, the organization addresses the needs of the women through the Women in Technology initiative. This initiative was undertaken in 1997 to support talented wome n in the technology industry. Through partnership with other organizations, it encourages more young girls to pursue career in IT sector. Similarly, it creates an effective recruitment process to bring on board more talented women. Another similar initiative is its accommodation fund which aims at enabling people with disability access adaptive equipments that helps them function as well as other people. This fund aims to cover the cost of acquiring these equipments. Also, part of its workforce diversity policies is the work/life program. This program indicates that the organization understands different employees have other needs apart from working (IBM 2007; Browder Miller 2009). Advantages of Workforce diversity to IBM According to OÃ¢â¬â¢leary Weathington (2006) employees naturally value a sense of justice and fairness. If they feel this is not being offered to them, then they are more inclined to take actions that will definitely have negative effects on their productivity. However, if they feel their needs is being addressed the vice-versa will happen. Such is the case at IBM, the management at the company have pointed out that they have experienced increased teamwork. For instance, Browder Miller (2009) elaborated that the partnership between senior management and employees has significantly evolved to a point whereby a positive overhaul in organization culture was experienced. According to Browder Miller (2009) most of this organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees feel personally involved in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s matters and hence hold themselves responsible for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Another important merit is the fact that IBM has used itÃ¢â¬â¢s the diversification as bridge to the market place. As result, the capacity to handle foreign culture and belief has tremendously increased. These initiatives have also streamlined the recruitment process enabling the company to attract the best talent. Even when there is scarce talent in the labour marke t, initiatives such as the training of fresh talent ensures the organization has plenty of supply. Women in Technology, is such as initiative. However, a notable contribution of the workforce diversity to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line is the fact it was able to turn 10 million dollars to 200 million dollar. This happened within a span of 3 years, from 198 to 2001, as result of effectively employing a diverse group of vendors (IBM 2007; Browder Miller 2009). Disadvantages Amid all the benefits effective management of workforce diversity has brought to both the employees and the organization, there still exist some minor demerits experienced. One of the major set back is the increase in operating cost. The organization over the past years has been forced to spend huge sums of money to maintain its image as a global organization that highly support diversification. For example, buying adaptive instrument require additional allocation of funds. Similarly, their work/life balance pro gram, which at times allows employees to work at home, has to a certain percentage reduced the control of the manager (IBM 2007; Browder Miller 2009). Another factor that can act as disadvantage to this organization is combining workforce diversification program with affirmative action. The move can be quite counter productive. This is because, more often than not affirmative action are designed to cover certain groups of people who had previously experienced some sort of social injustice. As result, applying it as workforce diversity program can mistakenly favour one group over the other. Therefore, when adopted in an organization, as in the case for IBM, it might lead to resistance. At the moment staffs in this organization very satisfied with what IBM is doing. Therefore it should not relent in its efforts of effectively managing the workforce diversity (IBM 2007; Browder Miller 2009). Bank of Montreal (BMO) Bank of Montreal, or as it is well known BMO, is another company that has a high reputation of effectively managing and encouraging workforce diversity. It is cited as the oldest and fourth largest bank-in terms of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s deposit- in Canada. In 1989, it incorporated the establishing and managing of a diverse workforce in its corporate strategy. The move indicated how serious this company is when it comes to managing workforce diversity. Recently, it was awarded the 2010 CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Best Diversity Employer (BMO financial group 2010). Workforce Diversity at BMO The company has taken several steps to ensure workforce diversity is well managed. As an indication of how serious it is on the issue, the top leadership have been fully involved in the process. This is done through the establishment of a CEO council of equitable workplace. The council regularly monitors and review the progress of the organization towards achieving the set goals. Well laid down infrastructure such online platforms, helps in reviewing the progress quarterly. Similar ly, annual performance appraisals are conducted. The assigned managers are held accountable of any regression witnessed. If the progress in their departments is wanting, they should have a good enough reason as to why that is so, while at the sometime suggesting ways of improving the system (BMO financial group 2010). To ensure the environment is conducive enough to support the works of senior management, the company went ahead and develop the diversity councils and affinity groups. Diversity councils are groups which actively involves all the employees of BMO in the process of effectively managing the workforce. They create a platform which allow these employees to champion for are diversified and inclusive work environment. Affinity group contributes to the success of these objectives by including the whole community at large (BMO financial group 2010). In addition, BMO has gone an extra mile to become the top sponsor of the external diversity employer award. This is an award syst em that honours those companies that manages well their diverse workforce. The main aim of the award scheme is to encourage organization to adopt workplace best management practices. Such a move signals that this organization is not merely motivated by profit gains, but it is sincerely concerned about the welfare of the workforce. This conclusion is arrived by considering two factors; the first one is the fact that it encourages other organization to incorporate objectives concerning effective management of workforce diversity, in their corporate. This it does knowing very well that when other organizations adopts its recommendation, their might increase their competitive advantage. As result, pose serious competition especially if they are targeting the same market. The second one, is the fact that BMO is not eligible to contest therefore missing out the opportunities that comes along with being among the winners (BMO financial group 2010). Advantages of Workforce diversity to BMO Both external studies and sources within the company have pointed out to a number of benefits associated with effective management of workforce diversity. These benefits are not any different from those enjoyed by IBM or any other company that has adopted best practices. Particularly the company is enjoying merits in the recruitment and retention process. Initiatives such as equity through education, undertaken by this organization continuously ensure there is supply of talent. This initiative provides education and training to marginalized groups (BMO financial group 2010).. Similarly, the diverse workforce has assisted this organization to understand the customers. Therefore, it has become is to forecast the way customers are likely to react when certain business actions are undertaken. BMO financial group (2010), acknowledge this fact by categorically stating that its diverse workforce reflects its customer base. For a company operating in Canada, whereby visible minorities and p eople regarded as Ã¢â¬ËmarginalizedÃ¢â¬â¢ hold quite a substantial purchasing power, this factor becomes very important. More over, when BMO hired Chinese speaking employees in its branches at the Asian markets, its level of success increased since customer responded positively. The employees were culturally competent and therefore well positioned to satisfy the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. For example, they suggested new ways of interacting with customers and changes in the organization structure and branding techniques, to include factors such as new colours which reflect the culture of this nation (BMO financial group 2010). Effective management of the workforce diversity has not only benefited the employer but also the employees. Particularly the policies associated with communication has enabled employee voice their concerns in areas where they feel equal opportunity is not being practiced. As result, employees have become more aware their rights. If either one of them feel his or her right is being isolated, they know exactly which offices they can visit to present their case and demand for necessary action to be taken. As result, various surveys have indicated that most employee of this organization continuously feel as essential part of the system. This has automatically resulted into increase productivity and levels of commitment. Actually senior executives have reported a continuous increase in creativity, innovation and collective knowledge (BMO financial group 2010). Disadvantage Various cultural dimensions will determine how people behave or generally conduct themselves. Definitely multi-cultural workforce is bound to experience various challenges. Factors such as language barrier, key values and approach to life can make an employee detach him or herself from the visibly different group. As result BMO has been forced to engage in tremendous effort and dedicate massive resources required to ensure there is harmony among all employees (BMO financia l group 2010). This takes a lot of time and money; extra employees are needed for the sole purpose of ensuring accord. Similar employees, especially top managers, have to spend substantial time analysing and reviewing whether the company is in progress of achieving the objectives. Despite this efforts there still some attitude among employees that do not compile with the general attitude of the organization. This non-physical hostile behaviour administered to minorities by the majorities can result in serious legal implications that might either affect the company financially or dent its corporate image (Burke 2007; BMO financial group 2010). Conclusion Whether to diversify the workforce or not is not the issue; the current business operating environment has made diversification unavoidable. The issue is how a business can effectively manage and encourage work diversity. This should not be merely for the purpose of maximizing the profit, but should be for the general good of its emp loyee. Provided the employee feel an organization has their interest at heart, their productivity will be increased and accordingly result in a higher profit margin. Such is the case for IBM and BMO. Although the two organizations have massively invested towards ensuring an effective and diversified workforce, they have been reaping the sumptuous benefits. Reference List BMO Financial Group, 2010. Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. Web. Browder, L.M. Miller 2009, Workforce Diversity: The Big Blue Case, McGraw-Hill, New Delhi. Burke, L.M. 2007, Managing the Diverse Workforce Effectively, Rutledge, London. IBM, 2007. Global workforce diversity. Web. OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary, B.J., Weathington B.L., 2006. Beyond the Business Case for Diversity in Organisations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Dec, 18 (4), pp.1-10. Ongori, H., Agolla, J., 2007. Critical Review of Literature on Workforce Diversity.Ã Africa Journal of Business Management, 22 (4), pp. 72-76. This report on Managing Workforce Diversity was written and submitted by user Yesenia French to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Instructional Leadership And Curriculum Example Instructional Leadership And Curriculum Ã¢â¬â Coursework Example Instructional Leadership and Curriculum Insights in the instructional Leadership and Curriculum The instructional leadership and the curriculum lead to gain of several insights in the education leadership. The instructional leadership provides insight on leadership content knowledge, that is, the knowledge requirement by the administrators in carrying out their roles as leaders as well as facilitating the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ study. It outlines the essence of postholing for leaders by provision of the insight on the need to gain in-depth understanding and mastery of a particular subject by the leader in bid to enhance its teaching to students. In addition, the instructional training provides an insight on the dynamics of leadership especially with an increase in the concerned organizational structure (Mitgang, 2007). The instructional leadership and curriculum development provides the principals with management skills on the flaws that presents in their new areas of work. In addition, it is a quality addition medium through which leaders are empowered to develop exceptional skills in managing daily challenges within educational leadership. The instructional leadership therefore offers a wide range of insight that are significant in the development of leadership ability and skills (Mitgang, 2007).How to use the Insight in the Leadership The insights from the instructional leadership and curriculum provide a guideline on the development of personal leadership skills of the leader, in this case, the principals. The concept of postholing, for instance, can be utilized in building the knowledge base that is necessary for efficient and productive leadership. The insights on the identification of flaws within an organization can serve as pivotal points to initiate the transformations in a given organization.ReferenceMitgang, L. D. (2007). Getting Principal Mentoring Right: Lessons from the Field. Perspective. Wallace Foundation. pp 1-23
Friday, November 22, 2019
Morrisons PLC - Essay Example specially during a period where intense competition and rising prices of doing business in grocery have squeezed profit margins available to retailers. Morrisons has recently experienced losses as it has struggled to integrate the Safeway chain of stores into its own retail base, which has caused its annual profits to drop substantially. Its shares plunged 3% in 2005, to recover somewhat by the end of the year and close off at 183 p or a 2% plunge of 3.75 pence.(Flanagan, 2005). As opposed to the predictions of financial analysts of an income of around 225 million pounds, it only posted profits of around 134.2 million pounds before taxation, with an earnings per share of 3 pounds and 52 pence.(www.morrisons.co.uk, 2006/7). In 2006 however, the position has improved for the 52 weeks that ended January 29, 2006, as per the revised income statement that has recently been published by Morrisons.(www.morrisons.co.uk, 2007). While the losses before taxation were reported as 312.9 million pounds, the same figure shoots upward to 374.4 million pounds when taking into account the Safeway conversion costs. However, the adjusted income before taxation is 61.5 million pounds profit, with net profit after taxes being 45.9 million pounds. However, as pointed out above, the earnings per share of the Company have dropped to 3.52 pounds per share in 2006. The current share prices of Morrison stock is in the range of 250 to 260 pence and has been moving within this range to about 350 pence, which is an average of about 3 pounds per share. The price to earnings ratio is therefore 3 /3.5 = 0.87, which provides an indication that the stock may be overpriced as compared to the returns that are being generated from it. Earnings on stocks are not substantial either, and the high price to earnings ratio provides an indication that that investors may not be actively pursuing purchase of this stock because of their perception that it does not offer very high potential for gain and is in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Business and the Constitution and Administrative Law - Essay Example In addition, for any successful business manager, it is helpful to know and be familiar with tribulations addressed by constitutional laws, provisions of those policies, and the type of administrative and mechanism via which these laws are enforced. Environment protection agency has established regulatory flexibility agenda that possess information that may have a positive impact on tourism industry. The environment protection agency continue to draft in it in the federal register since that is what is demanded by the regulatory flexibility Act enacted in 1980 (Kubasek & Silverman, 1997). Its actions are more protective and cost effective because it involves stakeholders to assist to identify most practical remedies to problems. More so, it encourages a person to be more involved in its policymaking process and rule. Environment protection agency information found in the registry is about compliance to administrative legal requirements and environmental laws used to the issuance of regulations. Section 610 of the regulatory federal agency demands that environmental protection agency review is conducted within 10 years of promulgation, each rule will have an impact on the economy (Kubasek & Silverman, 1997). Some information such as confidential business information is not available to the public. This restriction will be helpful to business operations of a manager at Microsoft Corporation since it does not reveal the secrets of the company. The operation manager will also use this information to improve the performance, security and availability of Microsoft networks. He or she will able to evaluate, monitor and secure vast resources such as web servers, corporate servers, computers and other
Monday, November 18, 2019
Gran Torino - Movie Review Example When main hero Walt first comes to ThaoÃ¢â¬â¢s house as a guest he feels alienated and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak to anybody (Miller & Vandome & McBrewster, 56). So do all the other members of the family who ignore him. He only speaks with Thao and his sister who are young and therefore donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel so secluded. Now even starting with simple displays of respect we can already see that intercultural communication goes wrong in this scene when it can be done better. Asian people rarely shake hands and they traditionally prefer to present their respect in a form of bow. Walt wants to give everybody his hand to shake but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed and afterwards even bows himself as he understands that it is he who is a guest and therefore should conform to the rules. But because Walt thinks of those people as guests in his country he canÃ¢â¬â¢t realize it at once and his intercultural communication evolves slowly with the flow of a storyline. Using this scene again it will be acceptab le to apply here interaction management too. If ThaoÃ¢â¬â¢s elderly family members and Walt instead of defiantly not talking with each other try to maintain a conversation about, for example, their neighborhood in which all of them happen to live whether they like it or not it would be easier for them to become closer. Next example is a general relationship between Thao and Walt who are completely different in age, nation, culture, tradition and views. But paradoxically this difference attracts them because they are so different from everybody that they seek understanding.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Four Basic Topologies Network And Summarize Nowadays, there have several types of network topologies with different characteristic, price and level, it was very important to choose a suitable network. Now we are going to discuss four basic network topologies : Bus, Ring, Star and Mesh. Lets discuss bus topologies first, bus network topologies is a single cable which use to connect to different points between network, as it only have one channel to support the bus network for communication, so the total capacity will send to all the points averagely. When a point want to send instructions to another point, it will announce a message to all the points thru wire and all the points will see it but only the destination point will receive and return the message to the sender point, other points will not give any response. Bus network topologies are cheaper than other network topologies because it use less cable and materie and also the installation is easier than other topologies. But because it is a single cable, when there have many points connect to the device, it will slow down the transmission speed and the total capacity. On the other hand, once the network have problem, it cost many times to fix it as you have to check all the cable connection to find out the problems. Also in a bus topology, once a single connection failure, it will stop the passage between all points. (The image of the About.com guide) Second topologies which we are going to discuss is Ring topology. In a ring network, each apparatus connected to two users for communication purpose. It looks like a circle and the message move around the circle to each point use single direction. Each node connect to its own cable to the Medium Attachment Unit (MAU). Ring network topology is easy to install and reconfigure and also easy to add new node as only two connections need changes. However, Ring network is not too convenience for the user as the data have to pass through all the points before getting to the destination. For example, if one network have six user, when the A computer want to send message to F computer, it have to pass through B, C, D, E computer and then to F. And if one network failure, whole network will disable because it only have single pathway to transmit the data. (The image of the About.com guide ) The third network topology is Star. Star network is one of the most usual computer network topologies. It features a central connection point call hub or concentrator (Bruce A Hallberg 2005) and it will radiate to other points. The characteristic of Star network is the hub or concentrator work as a central union to provide different route for signal send out to any two sites. Data on star network will send the message to hub or concentrator first before send to the destination point. Hub or concentrator works like a repeater for the data flow. In the star network topology, if one connection stoppage, only one node will lose the connection from this site and it wont be affect to other networks. On the other hand, it will be easy to find out the problem as all network is obey to hub, so once the network out of service, mostly it must be some problem with the hub and the problem can be fix quickly instead of checking all the points. Furthermore, as hub is control everything included add or remove devices, that means Star network is easy to install. If you want to add some new devices to the network, just need to connect the cable to hub and other computer will detect the devices and can use it. It save lots times to install the devices to all computers separately in the network. Moreover, hub can also be act as a backup file, once the network is not work, you can move to another computer and using the data from hub. Although star network is more stable than other network topology, but star network is more expensive as it needs more wires to support the network. And because it is fully obey to hub, once there have many nodes, the network maybe slow down. (The image of the Florida Center for Instructional Technology College of Education, University of South Florid 1997.) Last network topology we have to share is Mesh. Mesh network is a network where all the nodes connected to each other with different ways, maybe single hop or multiple hops. In a mesh network, if one node or cable have problem occur, there will have another way to communicate with other node, it wont be halt the whole network. Mesh network will also default the short way automatically while the message moving on the mesh network, that means the data no need to pass through all the points before reach to destination, it save many times for transaction the data. Mesh network is a network which is not easy to interruption by connection problem as there have many possible patterns that can use. When one node failure to connect, mesh network will find another way to reach the destination easily. Mesh network separate to two similar types: Full mesh and Partial mesh. Full mesh which every node will connect to each other so the network can provide best redundancy function. Once one of the nodes breakdowns, connection between the networks will be stronger under full mesh network because there have more possible route to reach to destination. Because of more wires need, so full mesh network is expensive than partial mesh network and it may also affect the set up procedure because of the complexity. For the economical reasons, some of the company will prefer to use the partial mesh network. In partial mesh network, devices are only connects to a subsection node instead of all nodes. This may affect the entire network once the connection have problem because it only have one or two ways to reach the destination point. Although the communication between the networks is not as strong as full mesh network, but the cost is cheaper than it, so nowadays partial mesh network is more popular than full mesh network. (The image of the network dictionary 2004) Physical communication media is a path that can let the electronic data move from one computer to another. And now will going to describe different physical communication media, for example Twisted-Pair cable, Coaxial Cable and Fiber-optic cable. The first cable we are going to talk about is Twisted-Pair cable. Twisted-pair cable which can be subdivided as unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP) (Bruce A Hallberg 2005). Both UTP and STP have eight separate brown metal wires and cover by insulate material. Besides, each pair of wires was wound to each other. UTP and STP not only have similar structure and also have similar transmission technology. Even though STP has a better protection interface and quality than UTP, but it cost more expensive and not easy to install. Using Twisted-pair cables advantage is its size is smaller than others so that it will easy to install and it cost cheaper than Coaxial cable and Fiber-optic cable. On the other hand, the transmission signal is shorter than other communication media and the coverage area is only 100 meters. Another cable we are going to talk about is Coaxial Cable. Coaxial cable is cover by 4 layers: copper wire, insulation, copper mesh and cable jacket. Coaxial cable can aid 10-100 Mbps and it coverage 500 meters. (Scribd n.d.) The advantage of Coaxial Cable is it can run for a long distance between network but use less power. The cost of Coaxial cable is cheaper than Fiber-optic cable and because of it use for many years, so it will be more popular. However, the size of Coaxial Cable not as thin as Twisted-pair cable, so it will be difficult to install and relatively the set up fee will be higher than Twisted-pair cable. The last one we have to talk about is Fiber-Optic cable. Fiber-Optic cable is made by narrow core and insulates material. It use the lights to transmission the date. Most of the corporate network will use Fiber-optic cable as back bones to connect different network. The advantage of Fiber-optic cable is it has a higher data speed and the higher bandwidth is good for future development. But Fiber-optic cable is not quite flexible as it cannot curve, so it will be more difficult to install and the cost is the most expensive one. Different computers have its own different purpose, we are going to compare Microcomputers, Laptop computers, Minicomputers, Mainframe computers and Supercomputers size, speed, processing capabilities, price and how many users can use at the same time. Types of computers Microcomputers Laptop computers Minicomputers Mainframe computers Supercomputer Size Fits on desk Small and conveyable Size in between microcomputers and mainframe computers Partial room of apparatus Full room of apparatus Speed Up to 400 million Up to 400 million Thousands to millions Millions Millions to billions Processing capabilities Word process Surfing the web Database management Calculations Email function Word process Surfing the web Database management Calculations Email function Web surfing Check email Basic productivity software (Daniel J.Gansle,2010) Processing data quickly and information storage, mostly using on airline system, back or insurance company. Process very large amounts of date, such as weather forecasting and government. Price of computers From $2500 up to $17000 From $2500-up to $23000 From $5000-$15000 $300,000- several million dollars Several million dollars and up Simultaneously connected users For individual use only For individual use only Two to four thousand Hundred to thousand Hundred to thousand
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
"The greatest danger for most of us is not that our aim was too high and we missed it, but that it was too low and we reached it." Michelangelo Because "Humanity is divided into three parts: 1. those who make things happen 2. those who watch things happen 3. and those who don't know what's happening." Unknown And right now we seem to fall into category three, but today we have an opportunity to change that. We can stray from living our lives patterned after how we behaved in high school. As graduates we have all become equals. We are without any restraints. Social status, personalities, and disagreements can be left in the past. And as we give up the past in order to be ready for the future, opportunity lies at the door. "You must begin to think of yourself as b...
Monday, November 11, 2019
1. Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference in development occur? (1993) 2. In what ways did ideas and values held by Puritans influence the political, economic, and social development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? (2010) 3. In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? (2004) 4. To what extent had the colonists developed a sense of their own identity and unity as Americans by the eve of the Revolution? (1999) 5. To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer be sure to address the political, social and economic effects of the Revolution from 1775 to 1800. (2005) 6. From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained freedom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of those changes took place. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them. (2009) 7. Discuss the changing ideals of American womanhood between the American Revolution (1770Ã¢â¬â¢s) and the outbreak of the Civil War. What factors fostered the emergence of Ã¢â¬Å"republican motherhoodÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"cult of domesticityÃ¢â¬ ? Assess the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women during this period. In your answer be sure to consider issues of race and class. (2006) 8. With respect to the federal Constitution, the Jeffersonian Republicans are usually characterized as strict constructionists who were opposed to the broad constructionism of the Federalists. To what extent was this characterization of the two parties accurate during the presidencies of Jefferson and Madison? (1998) 9. Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to the years 1820-1850. (2002) 10 To what extent did the natural environment shape the development of the West beyond the Mississippi and the lives of those who lived and settled there? How important were other factors? (1992) 11. In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution? (1996) 12. Analyze the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture in the period 1865-1900. In your answer be sure to evaluate farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ responses to these changes. (2007) 13. How successful was organized labor in improving the position of workers in the period from 1875 to 1900? Analyze the factors that lead to the level of success achieved. ((2000) 14. To what extent was late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century United States expansionism a continuation of past United States expansionism and to what extent was it a departure? (1994) 15. To what extent did economic and political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the period 1890 Ã¢â¬â 1925? (1997) 16. It was the strength of the opposition forces, both liberal and conservative, rather than the ineptitude and stubbornness of President Wilson that led to the Senate defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. Assess the validity. (1991)
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Supernatural Elements in English Literature: The Werewolves AÃ werewolf, also known as aÃ lycanthrope, is aÃ mythological orÃ folkloricÃ human with the ability toÃ transformÃ into a wolf or anÃ anthropomorphicÃ wolf-like creature, either purposely or after being placed under aÃ curse and/or lycanthropic affliction through a bite or scratch from a werewolf, or some other means. This transformation is often associated with the appearance of theÃ full moon, as popularly noted by the medieval chroniclerÃ Gervase of Tilbury, and perhaps in earlier times among the ancientÃ GreeksÃ through the writings ofÃ Petronius.In addition to the natural characteristics inherent to both wolves and humans, werewolves are often attributed strength and speed far beyond those of wolves or men. The werewolf is generally held as aÃ EuropeanÃ character, although its knowledge spread through the world in later times. Shape-shifters, similar to werewolves, are common in tales f rom all over the world, most notably amongst theÃ Native Americans, though most of them involve animal forms other than wolves.Werewolves are a frequent subject of modernÃ fiction, although fictional werewolves have been attributed traits distinct from those of original folklore. For example, the ideas that werewolves are only vulnerable toÃ silver bulletsÃ or pierced by silver weapons, or that they can cause others to become werewolves by biting or wounding them derive from works of modern fiction. Werewolves continue to endure in modern culture and fiction, with books, films and television shows cementing the werewolf's stance as a dominant figure in horror.The werewolf of the last 60 years is largely the product of Hollywood. The first big werewolf film was The Werewolf of London (1935) followed by The Wolfman (1941), Frankenstein Meets the Wolfman (1943) and The House of Frankenstein (1944). THE CHILDREN OF LYCAON The Greeks and Romans included the werewolf in their myth ology, in the story of Lycaon, the Tyrant of Arcadia. Lycaon served Zeus (pronounced as Ã¢â¬ËzeoosÃ¢â¬â¢) human flesh at a banquet. In return the god transformed the evil man into a wolf, reflecting the shape of his soul.The very first transformation scene in werewolf literature was penned by the Roman poet, Ovid. Written in the 1st Century AD, the scene shows even the ancient writers knew what readers wanted to see: Ã¢â¬ ¦ There he uttered howling noises, and his attempts to speak were all in vain. His clothes changed into bristling hairs, his arms to legs, and he became a wolf. His own savage nature showed in his rabid jaws, and he now directed against the flocks his innate lust for killing. He had a mania, even yet, for shedding blood.But though he was a wolf, he retained some traces of his original shape. The greyness of his hair was the same, his face showed the same violence, his eyes gleamed as before, and he presented the same picture of ferocity. From Lycaon's name we get the word Ã¢â¬Å"LycanthropyÃ¢â¬ or the state of being a werewolf. From mythology, the werewolf entered legend. In the works of Herodotus and Petronius, the werewolf goes from being a mortal cursed by a god to a shape-shifting witch or warlock with evil intentions. In Petronius'Ã The SatyriconÃ is a segment sometimes called Ã¢â¬Å"Niceros' Story.Stories like Ã¢â¬Å"Niceros' StoryÃ¢â¬ were common well up to the feudal times. The werewolf was a man, transformed into the animal with all its vulnerabilities. Geraldis Cambrensis tells about two Irish folk cursed by an abbot, to be wolves for their ungodliness. After seven years penance as wolves, they were to change back into humans and return home. The Rawlinson ManuscriptÃ tells about Ã¢â¬Å"King Arthur and GorgalonÃ¢â¬ . Gorgalon is another poor individual cursed to be a wolf. These medieval werewolves did not kill men or livestock, and could even speak the Name of God to prove their goodness.They are victims of pries ts, witches and often their own sin. THE LITERARY WEREWOLF The Renaissance ushered in a new era, that of the literary werewolf. John Webster wrote of moral werewolves and vampires in his playÃ The Duchess Of MalfiÃ (1613), figurative creatures rather than literal ones. William Beckford, writing a century later during the Age of Reason, briefly mentions the lycanthrope in his arabesque taleÃ VathekÃ (1787)as does Charles Maturin in his masterpiece,Ã Melmoth The WandererÃ (1820).Other literary figures like Mrs. Crowe and Alexandre Dumas wrote works with werewolves central to the plot. Even the prolific and sanguine Penny DreadfulsÃ¢â¬âsemi-illiterate, often plaguaristic, newspapers sold for a penny a pageÃ¢â¬âproduced one lycanthrope:Ã Wagner, The Wehr-WolfÃ (1846) by G. W. M. Reynolds. With the exception of Wagner, more often than not, the werewolf was used as a metaphor for the beastly sins of glutton, cruelty and avarice than as an actual creature. Despite wor ks with Romantic tonalities like GeorgeMacDonald's Ã¢â¬Å"The Gray WolfÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Romance of Photogen and NycterisÃ¢â¬ as well as Robert Louis Stevenson's Ã¢â¬Å"OllalaÃ¢â¬ , the majority of VictoriansÃ¢â¬âperhaps the single period to produce the greatest werewolf classicsÃ¢â¬âpreferred the supernatural approach, in adventure stories like Rudyard Kipling's Ã¢â¬Å"The Mark of the BeastÃ¢â¬ (1891), moral tales like Clemence Houseman's Ã¢â¬Å"The WerewolfÃ¢â¬ (1896) and the masterpiece of vampirism,Ã DraculaÃ (1897) by Bram Stoker. More interesting to the lycanthrophile is the excised first chapter, published as Ã¢â¬Å"Dracula's GuestÃ¢â¬ in 1914.In this chapterÃ¢â¬âcut because of the novel's lengthÃ¢â¬âJonathan Harker leaves his carriage, which is taking him to Transylvania, and gets lost in a snowstorm. The graveyard he takes shelter in is inhabited by the undead. Only Dracula's appearance as a great, red-eyed wolf, saves Harker, so that he can go onto Castle Dracula and the well-known events there. It is with Stoker and the other Victorians that lycanthrope returns to its true state as a supernatural creature, but retains some allusive qualities as a literary device.The Twentieth Century brought many works about werewolves, more than in any preceding era. Early on these works resemble their Victorian counterparts in the works of writers like Algernon Blackwood and Eden Phillpotts, dealing largely with moral evil embraced in traditional ghost story techniques. It took a novel by New Yorker, Guy Endore (Harry Relis), to change the werewolf theme forever. Before Endore, the only werewolves to comment on social ills or the state of Mankind, were the allusive villains of Webster, evil men but not in actuality flesh-eating monsters.Endore combine the Ã¢â¬Å"actualÃ¢â¬ werewolf and the Ã¢â¬Å"literaryÃ¢â¬ werewolf to create a modern classic. During the years that Endure wroteÃ The Werewolf Of Paris, the greatest explosi on of entertainment writing in American history was taking place. During the 1920-50's the Pulp magazines dominated popular entertainment. Titles like Weird Tales and Strange Stories produced hundreds of works about werewolves and other monsters. One writer who exemplified an imaginative use of the werewolf, was Robert E. Howard, the creator of Conan the Cimmerian.One of his very first stories was the vignette Ã¢â¬Å"In the Forest of VillefereÃ¢â¬ (1925) which first introduces de Montour, a man who meets a werewolf and kills him in wolf form. By so doing, he assumes the curse from the last victim. When we meet him again in Ã¢â¬Å"WolfsheadÃ¢â¬ (1926) we get to see how the curse comes on him like a ghost, possessing him and turning him into a Ã¢â¬Å"wolf manÃ¢â¬ . De Montour was standing, legs braced, arms thrown back, fists clenched. The muscles bulged beneath his skin, his eyes widened and narrowed, the veins stood out upon his forehead as if in great physical effort.As I loo ked, to my horror, out of nothing, a shapeless, nameless something took vague form! Like a shadow it moved upon de Montour. It was hovering about him! Good God, it was merging, becoming one with the man! It should be noted that Henry Hull had yet to appear asÃ The Werewolf Of LondonÃ and set Hollywood's werewolf mould for all time. Across many stories, Howard sets down the idea that the wolf people, the harpies and other mythological creatures are ancient survivors of a time when man had yet to evolve from the trees. Contemporary with Howard was H.Warner Munn who pennedÃ The Tales of the Werewolf Clan. Beginning with Ã¢â¬Å"The Werewolf of PonkertÃ¢â¬ (1925) he creates a different image of the lycanthrope, not a man who becomes a wolf but another creature who only shares some of the wolf's features: MunnÃ¢â¬â¢s work was inspired by a letter from H. P. Lovecraft published in Weird Tales. HPL asked Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ why someone had not attempted a werewolf story narrated by the werewolf himselfÃ¢â¬ . Munn tells the decline of a man who is selected against his will to join the wolf clan that is led by the fearsome Master, a vampire-like being who feeds on victims' souls.The sequel Ã¢â¬Å"The Werewolf's DaughterÃ¢â¬ (1928) tells of the Werewolf of Ponkert's daughter who is wrongfully prosecuted for his crimes. H. P. Lovecraft, whose fame lies with monsters on such a gigantic scale as to make the werewolf look trivial, himself used the werewolf in a collaborative story called Ã¢â¬Å"The Ghost-eaterÃ¢â¬ (1923), in which the werewolf has been murdered but returns as a ghost, reliving over and over its revenge. He also used the lycanthrope in the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The HowlerÃ¢â¬ (1929).MODERN WEREWOLVES With the coming of pulps like Astounding Science Fiction and Amazing Stories in the 1920's, Science Fiction writers would eventually get around to explaining the werewolf in scientific terms, in magazines like John W. Campbell'sÃ Unknown. Three of the most intriguing areÃ Ã¢â¬Å"The Wolves of DarknessÃ¢â¬ (1932,Ã Strange Tales)Ã and the novelÃ Darker Than You ThinkÃ (1940,Ã Unknown) by Jack Williamson and Ã¢â¬Å"There Shall Be No DarknessÃ¢â¬ (1950,Ã Thrilling Wonder Stories) by James Blish.Recent horror writers have used this same approach, playing fast and loose with the traditional werewolf but creating consistent, terrifying monsters. Whitley Strieber disposed with the shape-shifter altogether and gave usÃ The WolfenÃ (1978), ancient wolf-like spirits who have been on the Earth longer than humans. Preying off the unwanted and derelict, the Wolfen are the top of the human food chain, taking the sick and the weak. The future of the werewolf is assured. The old lycanthrope has a few surprises left up his furry sleeve.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
How to Create Effective Document Templates Essay Example How to Create Effective Document Templates Essay How to Create Effective Document Templates Essay I am happy to answer any questions you have, but everyone might benefit from this additional Information. There is no sample paper for you to see, but I will try to describe what you should have. Some students ask If you should fill In the template and then write a paper. I suggest you start by using the template as an outline. Save he template as your paper and begin filling in the information you have under each section. SE the template sections as the headings for your paper. Then you could go back and begin to discuss each section, using the information you have gathered from the class material. Add any additional information from your class material to help with this assessment. Document your sources in the paper. You should be using PAP style to document your sources. You are welcome to include sources other than the class material, but it is not necessary. You should have enough from what we have learned in the course weeks to write this paper. The case studies are not very long, so, while you should not make stuff up, you certainly may need to speculate, based on the Information given, about deeper Issues. As long as what you are speculating seems to correspond to the Information given, you will be staying on track. You may want to mention additional Information that would be good to know; questions you might ask the subject if her or she were present. Remember that the paper should be 6-8 pages long. It should be double-spaced, with 1 inch margins all around and written in 12 point Times New Roman or similar font. The 6-8 pages do not include your title page, reference page, or abstract (if you have one). You should have 6-8 pages in Having less than 6 pages or substantially more than 8 pages will cost you points. A word of advice?Make sure you check your spelling, grammar, and punctuation. All of these things are part of your grade. Some students have written good material, but because they misspelled rods, used bad grammar, or had run-on sentences, they received a lesser grade than they might have otherwise. Also, make sure you are following PAP style for your paper. Not doing so will also cost you points. Some of the most common mistakes I see students make on this type of assignment are these: using non-scholarly sources such as websites and magazines (not peer review journals). For example: Wisped is NOT an appropriate source for a research paper. You are not required to use additional sources for this paper, but if you do, make sure they are appropriate. Exceptions to this rule include government websites where statistics are available. Failing to use PAP style when writing. Using contractions. Contractions should never be used In formal writing. Preaching to the reader. I may agree with what you are saying, but be careful to based on the research and literature. Failing to document sources within the text of the paper. Every statement or idea, whether it is a direct quote or paraphrased, must be supported by the literature and the source of the information cited. Failing to use headings in the body of the paper. For this paper, you have the headings already given to you. Use them. Not proofreading your paper before submitting. I have graded papers with multiple spelling, punctuation, and grammar errors. These will cost you points. It is a good idea to have someone else read through it for you. If you struggle with writing skills, it would be a good idea to make use of the services of the LOU writing center. They can help you with some of these things. I hope this helps and answers some of your questions. Please let me know if you have additional ones.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Promotion - Research Paper Example Promotions always play a vital role for every organization. It is a way to communicate to the buyers about product and product policies. Through this, the buyers get an idea about product and its value to them. In others words, it provide information about product to the buyers. Promotion includes lots activities which aid to share knowledge about product and its policies to the buyer. Such activities are advertising, media communication, sponsorship, sales force and lots more. It is a major airline carrier in U.S.A. Headquarter of American Airline is in Fort Worth, Texas. It has huge network of domestic and international. The flights are schedule throughout U.S.A, Europe, the Caribbean and Asia. Promotion objectives for any organization are same. Promotion of product or service is done only to raise the sale of it in market. Others objectives are information about product or service to the buyers and its good features. The main objectives of American airline are to increase in sales and retention of customers. This is done through with good promotion activity, where they provide information about their services and features. They promote themselves with help of communication channels in large number. The communication channels are news releases (in this they tell about their financial reports, their new strategies), press kits (used to tell about their features and technology), multimedia library (eg. Television advertising, mms clips) and social media (eg. facebook, tweeter, LinkedIn, Google +, YouTube, instagram and lots more) The way of promotion is very unique, which attract the buyers. Even though, they have launched loyalty program for frequent flyer which is also attracting strategy of promotion. According to the Corporate Responsibility Report, The American Airline has done good work in social and economic aspects, which gives a good footprint into market. Delta Air Line, a big name in this
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Womens Studies Technology of Gender - Essay Example In most of the earlier technologies, most of the software part is in making the hardware work to the advantage of the user. For instance, car is a major technology achievement; every automobile is. However, in the earlier days, cranking the car, starting it up and driving it safely; all these were expected as knowledge for the person who drives the car. In other words, this is the software that is expected out of the user to make use of the hardware that is called the car. So is the case with most of the technologies today. More and more products in the technology front would mean that the person who makes use of it has to be technology savvy and applies more technology to run or make use of the 'technological' hardware. This is more so, in the case of those objects specifically made for the women. The technology employed for those gadgets exclusively used by the women has grown in their dimensions and so is the software part for that gadget as well. The feminine technologies drive at making the right kind of gadget for the women in the form and manner best suited for them and their operation (McGraw 20) . A car is not designed for a woman. It is made for a man and given to women to make use of! However, there are specific devices and gadgets that a... We will also analyse the extent to which feminine technology and the technology of genders have an impact on the social, political and cultural aspects of our society. Hip Hugger Laundry Basket The hip hugger laundry basket is not a 'great' invention but addresses the need of a woman at home. The technologies that matter most are employed with the understanding of how the work is done at home. It is supposed for carrying at the hip with one hand and other hand free to hold on to a rail while climbing stairs or for whatever other purpose. This is supposed to be large enough to take care of the normal requirement of a family in holding the clothes. It should be soft on the hip but at the same time hard enough not to break down easily when it is fully loaded. This is not a great requirement from the hardware point of view of the technology. There are a number of soft plastics that could be soft on the hip and be hard enough not to break when loaded. However, the software for using this product is not that easy. It is not easy for, say men, to carry something of this kind on their hips. Only with practice it can be placed appropriately and be carried for on the hips. Additionally, when this is carried for long distances, say up the stairs, the pain in the hips is certainly high. And that is possibly the reason why they have also provided alternate grips on the sides of the basket so that they can be carried with both hands. In which case, they are no better than the other baskets that women have been using all along. The only comforting factor in the hip hugger basket is that it hugs the hip reasonably well and is made ergonomically. This makes the hip hugger what it name claims to be but this is not a full time hip hugger and